Pope John Paul II, although a man of the Church, was possessed with an uncommon sense for the dynamics of globalism and the complexities of peoples and cultures.
My first one-on-one meeting with Pope John Paul II was on September 13, 2001. The occasion was the formal presentation of my diplomatic credentials as the new United States Ambassador to the Holy See. It was planned to be a festive occasion; instead, it was a sad event as the world was grieving the horrific events of just 48 hours prior.
The first thing the Pope said to me was how sorry he felt for my country, which had just been attacked, and how sad it made him feel. We next said a prayer together for the victims and their families.
Then the Pope said something very profound and very revealing of his acute grasp of international terrorism. He said, “Ambassador Nicholson, this was an attack, not just on the United States, but on all of humanity.” And, then he added, “We must stop these people who kill in the name of God.”
The Pope’s words about the attackers of America on 9/11, and our need, indeed our moral obligation “to do something” was invaluable to the U.S. in assembling a “Coalition of the Willing,” as President Bush called it. It was the Pope’s instant and keen grasp of the situation – the Afghanistan-based launching of these terrorist attacks — that compelled him to lend his moral influence to his friend and ally, the United States.
He knew exactly what he was saying and the effect it would have on the other countries who were trying to decide whether or not to join us as military partners in Afghanistan against Al Qaeda and its collaborators. The Pope didn’t pause, hesitate or equivocate when he communicated through me to our President and the leaders of like-minded countries to push back against those stateless terrorists who tried to align themselves under the protective wall of Afghanistan’s sovereignty.
Pope John Paul II grew up under the repressive regimes of both the Nazis and the Communists. He knew well the effects on freedom and dignity that those with an ideological agenda and matching military resources could wreak on innocent people.
The Pope had played a key role in what George Weigel call the “revolution of conscience” in Poland. He was instrumental in the demise of the Soviet Union and European Communism, and he was well practiced in the intricacies of using discreet moral force to influence international bodies.
Being first and foremost a man of peace, Pope John Paul II also understood the Just War doctrine of the Church and the responsibility of leaders to protect innocent people from evil forces. He respected President Bush and his “prudential judgment” in deciding what was legitimate to protect the common good.
In 2004, President Bush, with gratitude and respect for his solidarity with American values, presented the Pope with the Medal of Freedom, which is the highest award the United States bestows on a civilian.
Jim Nicholson is the former U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See
Regarding my personal financial situation—From the earliest days (more than twenty years ago) the Founder of the Society of Our Lady, Fr. James Flanagan, encouraged me to support myself and the Church as well. He said they could not afford to support my ministry and me personally because of the unique nature of the mission. At every step of the way, through the entire past twenty years, the Society of Our Lady’s leadership knew of my financial independence. As Fr. Flanagan encouraged, I have supported SOLT and myself from ‘day-one.‘ I have never relied on the Society for shelter, clothing, transportation, medical care, or legal counsel and instead, using my history of success in business, set up my mission as any savvy business man would, meanwhile continuing to support the Society and many other Catholic Charities.
Regarding the charge of sexual impropriety—This song of greed has been sung many times before. I have never had any promiscuous or even inappropriate relations with her. Never.
Regarding the investigation—As standard practice, my legal counsel advised me not to cooperate with the investigation until I was able to determine that the Commission’s process was fair and I had adequate rights to defend myself. Questions that certainly qualify the validity of any legal case have never been answered by the so called “fact finding team.” They refuse to reveal, and therefore utilize, any of the so-called evidence perhaps because if ‘the bad guy’ were truly revealed it may be revealed that he is really not that bad. Clearly, as my legal counsel has portrayed, the evidence supplied by the accused (of which my counsel is not permitted access to) must not have any substance.
Regarding ‘hush money’—I never paid anybody off to remain silent. On two occasions there were standard severance agreements executed with former employees and independent contractors. These agreements contained very common non-disclosure provisions. Any attorney who would not include such provisions in such agreements would rightly be guilty of negligent and actionable conduct.
Regarding my resignation—I resigned because the process used by the Church is grossly unjust, and, hence, immoral. I resigned because I had no chance from the beginning of a fair and just hearing. As I have indicated from the beginning of all this, I am not extinguished! If I were to commit to the suggestion of the Society, then I would essentially crawl under a rock and wait to die. However, I can not deny this desire to share aspects of Truth and Hope with all those willing to hear. This is what I shall continue to fight for! Many are not going to appreciate this decision, and I respect that. For those who can accept it, onward!
“Social movements, such as the sexual revolution and development of understanding about sexual victimization and harm, necessarily had an influence on those within organizations just as they did on those in the general society.”
I don’t know, but it seems to me dear reader that the priest pictured above certainly reflects the social movements of his time. AND WE DO KNOW from the Terrible Case of Paul Shanley that he constructed “a ministry for prey” based on his growing understandingabout sexual victimization and harm…
In the 1970s, (Paul) Shanley was known as “the hippie priest”; he was a Roman Catholic clergyman whose specialty was ministering to kids struggling with their sexual identity. By 2002, however, Shanley was a central figure in the greatest scandal ever to hit the Catholic Church in the United States. Shanley was accused of molesting more than two dozen boys over a 35-year span. Subsequent investigations into other allegations in the Boston archdiocese resulted in the Church paying $85 million in 2003 to 552 people who claimed to have been abused by priests. It also triggered similar probes, and similar results, in other areas of the country. In 2005, at the age of 74, Shanley was sentenced to 12 to 15 years in prison.
Okay, so let’s at least get it nearly right. Nobody appears to want anything to do with blaming the sexual revolution for such deviant behavior, because if we did then logic would necessarily lead us into having to mention the “H” word as part and parcel of that same revolution. And hardly any “liberated” persons would approve of this new–if not fully accurate–Commonweal summation:
“But the claim that the sexual revolution helped cause increased clergy sex abuse of minors by homosexuals was the weak link in the study because it’s speculation…”
The absence of a Mass in the Extraordinary Form is not an indication of a lack of orthodoxy. Indeed, the Holy See’s instruction itself says: “6. The Roman Missal promulgated by Pope Paul VI and the last edition prepared under Pope John XXIII, are two forms of the Roman Liturgy, defined respectively as ordinaria and extraordinaria: they are two usages of the one Roman Rite, one alongside the other. Both are the expression of the same lex orandi of the Church.”.
I couldn’t agree and support this statement more. It’s a teaching of the Church.. However, I could supply ample proof(s), from this blog alone, of disobedience to mass norms and resulting unorthodox liturgical practices played out within the Mass. The crisis of disobedience and irreverence seemingly ever-present within the Church in our days is exemplified here, and like many I’m just simply tired of abuses found within the Mass. Not to mention having to sit through Protestant-nized masses offering us musical treats similar to the following…
“Where is the man, no matter what denomination, church or religion, that will deny that we are bound to believe what God has taught?”
The following sermon is as relevant today as it was over 100 years ago when it was first preached by Father Arnold Damen, S.J. This message was and still is a challenge to the many who pride themselves as being “Bible-and-Bible-Only Christians.”
One cannot have God for his Father, who will not have the Church for his Mother, and likewise, one cannot have the Word of God for his faith who will not have the Church for his teacher. It is the infallible teaching authority of the Church, as promised by Christ, which alone preserves God’s Word from erroneous interpretation. This is the essence of Fr. Damen’s sermon.
Every sincere Bible reader deserves to know the true relation God has established between His Church and Holy Scripture. Therefore, we invite all who love the Bible, to read Father Damen’s exposition with an open mind, lest while reading the Scriptures “… the unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction.” [2 Peter 3:16]
The Church Or The Bible
Dearly Beloved Christians, when our Divine Saviour sent His Apostles and His Disciples throughout the whole universe to preach the Gospel to every creature, He laid down the conditions of salvation thus: “He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned” [Mark 16:16]. Here, then, Our Blessed Lord laid down the two conditions of salvation, Faith and Baptism. I will speak this evening on the condition of Faith.
We must have Faith in order to be saved, and we must have Divine Faith, not human faith. Human faith will not save a man, but only Divine Faith. What is Divine Faith? It is to believe, upon the authority of God, the truths that God has revealed. That is Divine Faith, to believe all that God has taught upon the authority of God, and to believe without doubting, without hesitation. For the moment you begin to doubt or hesitate, that moment you begin to mistrust the authority of God, and, therefore, insult God by doubting His word. Divine Faith, therefore, is to believe without doubting and without hesitating. Human faith is belief upon the authority of men, on human authority. But Divine Faith is to believe without doubting, without hesitating, whatsoever God has revealed upon the authority of God, upon the Word of God.
Therefore, my dear people, it is not a matter of indifference what religion a man professes, providing he be a good man.
You hear it said nowadays in this Nineteenth Century of little faith that it matter not what religion a man professes, providing he be a good man. That is heresy, my dear people, and I will prove it to you to be such. If it be a matter of indifference what a man believes, providing he be a good man, then it is useless for God to make any revelation whatever. If a man is at liberty to reject what God revealeth, what’s the use for Christ to send out His Apostles and disciples to teach all nations, if those nations are at liberty to believe or reject the teachings of the Apostles or disciples? You see at once that this would be insulting God.
If God reveals a thing or teaches a thing, He wants to be believed. Man is bound to believe whatsoever God has revealed, for, my dear people, we are bound to worship God, both with our reason and intellect, as well as with our heart and will. God is master of the whole man. He claims his will, his heart, his reason and his intellect.
Where is the man, no matter what denomination, church or religion, that will deny that we are bound to believe what God has taught? I am sure there is not a Christian who will deny that we are bound to believe whatsoever God has revealed. Therefore, it is not a matter of indifference what religion a man professes. He must profess the true religion if he wants to be saved.
But what is the true religion? To believe all that God has taught. I am sure that even my Protestant friends will admit this is right, for, if they do not, I would say they are no Christians at all.
“But what is the true Faith?”
“The true Faith,” say Protestant friends, “is to believe in the Lord Jesus.”
Agreed, Catholics believe in that. Tell me what you mean by believing in the Lord Jesus?
“Why,” says my Protestant friend, “you must believe that He is the Son of the Living God.”
Agreed again. Thanks be to God, we can agree on something. We believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of the Living God, that He is God. To this we all agree, excepting the Unitarians and Socinians, but we will leave them alone tonight. If Christ be God, then we must believe all He teaches. Is this not so, my dearly beloved Protestant brethren and sisters? And that’s the right Faith, isn’t it?
“Well, yes,” says my Protestant friend, “I guess that is the right Faith. To believe that Jesus is the Son of the Living God, we must believe all that Christ has taught.”
We Catholics say the same, and here we agree again. We must believe all that Christ has taught, that God has revealed. Without this Faith, there is no salvation. Without this Faith, there is no hope of Heaven. Without this Faith, there is eternal damnation! We have the words of Christ for it, “He that believeth not shall be condemned.”
But if Christ, my dearly beloved people commands me under pain of eternal damnation to believe all that He has taught, He must give me the means to know what He has taught. And the means Christ gives us of knowing this must have been at all times within the reach of all people.
Secondly, the means that God gives us to know what He has taught must be a means adapted to the capacities of all intellects, even the dullest. For even the dullest have a right to salvation, and consequently they have a right to the means whereby they shall learn the truths that God has taught, that they may believe them and be saved.
The means that God give us to know what he has taught must be an infallible means. For if it be a means that can lead us astray, it can be no means at all. It must be an infallible means, so that if a man makes use of that means, he will infallibly, without fear of mistake or error, be brought to a knowledge of all the truths that God has taught.
I don’t think there can be anyone present here, I care not what he is, a Christian or an unbeliever, who can object to my premises. And these premises are the groundwork of my discourse and of all my reasoning, therefore, I want you to bear them in mind. I will repeat them, for on these premises rests all the strength of my discourse and reasoning.
If God commands me under pain of eternal damnation to believe all that He has taught, He is bound to give me the means to know what He has taught. And the means that God gives me must have been at all times within the reach of all people, must be adapted to the capacities of all intellects, must be an infallible means to us, so that if a man makes use of it he will be brought to a knowledge of all the truths that God has taught.
Has God given us such means? “Yes,” say my Protestant friends, “He has.” And so says the Catholic. God has given us such means. What is the means God has given us whereby we shall learn the truth that God has revealed? “The Bible,” say my Protestant friends, “the Bible, the whole of the Bible, and nothing but the Bible.” But we Catholics say, “No, not the Bible and its private interpretation, but the Church of the Living God.”
I will prove the facts, and I defy all my separated brethren, and all the preachers, to disprove what I will say tonight. I say, then, it is not the private interpretation of the Bible that has been appointed by God to be the teacher of man, but the Church of the Living God.
For, my dear people, if God has intended that man should learn His religion from a book, the Bible, surely God would have given that book to man. Christ would have given that book to man. Did He do it? He did not. Christ sent His Apostles throughout the whole universe and said, “Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.”
Christ did not say, “Sit down and write Bibles and scatter them over the earth, and let every man read his Bible and judge for himself.” If Christ had said that, there would never have been a Christianity on the earth at all, but a Babylon and confusion instead, and never one Church, the union of one body. Hence, Christ never said to His Apostles, “Go and write Bibles and distribute them, and let everyone judge for himself.” That injunction was reserved for the Sixteenth Century, and we have seen the result of it. Ever since the Sixteenth Century there have been springing up religion upon religion, and churches upon churches, all fighting and quarreling with one another, and all because of the private interpretation of the Bible.
Christ sent His Apostles with authority to teach all nations, and never gave them any command of writing the Bible. And the Apostles went forth and preached everywhere, and planted the Church of God throughout the earth, but never thought of writing.
The first word written was by Saint Matthew, and he wrote for the benefit of a few individuals. He wrote the Gospel about seven years after Christ left this earth, so that the Church of God, established by Christ, existed seven years before a line was written of the New Testament.
Saint Mark wrote about ten years after Christ left this earth, Saint Luke about twenty-five years, and Saint John about sixty-three years after Christ had established the Church of God. Saint John wrote the last portion of the Bible, the Book of Revelation, about sixty-five years after Christ had left this earth and the Church of God had been established. The Catholic religion had existed sixty-five years before the Bible was completed.
Now, I ask you, my dearly beloved separated brethren. Were these Christian people, who lived during the period between the establishment of the Church of Jesus and the finishing of the Bible, really Christians, good Christians and enlightened Christians? Did they know the religion of Jesus? Where is the man that will dare to say that those who lived from the time that Christ went up to Heaven to the time that the Bible was completed were not Christians? It is admitted on all sides, by all denominations, that they were the very best of Christians, the first fruit of the Blood of Jesus Christ.
But how did they know what they had to do to save their souls? Was it from the Bible that they learned it? No, because the Bible was not written. And would our Divine Saviour have left His Church for sixty-five years without a teacher, if the Bible is the teacher of man? Most assuredly not.
Were the Apostles Christians, I ask you, my dear Protestant friends? You say, “Yes sir, they were the very founders of Christianity.” Now, my dear friends, none of the Apostles ever read the Bible, not one of them except perhaps, Saint John. For all of them had died martyrs for the Faith of Jesus Christ and never saw the cover of a Bible. Every one of them died martyrs and heroes for the Church of Jesus before the Bible was completed.
How, then, did those Christians, that lived in the first sixty-five years after Christ ascended, know what they had to do to save their souls? They knew it precisely in the same way that you know it, my dear Catholic friends. You know it from the teachings of the Church of God and so did the primitive Christians know it.
For not only sixty-five years did Christ leave the Church He had established without a Bible, but for over three hundred years. The Church of God was established and went on spreading itself over the whole globe without the Bible for more than three hundred years. In all that time the people did not know what constituted the Bible.
In the days of the Apostles, there were many false gospels. There was the Gospel of Simon, the Gospel of Nicodemus, of Mary, of Barnabas, and the Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus. All of these gospels were spread among the people, and the people did not know which of these were inspired and which were false and spurious. Even the learned themselves were disputing whether preference should be given to the Gospel of Simon or that of Matthew, to the Gospel of Nicodemus or the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Mary or that of Luke, the Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus or the Gospel of Saint John the Evangelist.
And so it was in regard to the epistles. Many spurious epistles were written and the people were at a loss for over three hundred years to know which was false or spurious, or which was inspired. And, therefore, they did not know what constituted the books of the Bible.
It was not until the Fourth Century that the Pope of Rome, the Head of the Church, the successor of Saint Peter, assembled together the Bishops of the world in a council. And there in that council it was decided that the Bible, as we Catholics have it now, is the Word of God, and that the Gospels of Simon, Nicodemus, Mary, the Infancy of Jesus, and Barnabas, and all those other epistles were spurious or, at least, unauthentic. At least, that there was no evidence of their inspiration, and that the Gospels of Saints Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and the Book of Revelation, were inspired by the Holy Ghost.
Up to that time the whole world for three hundred years did not know what the Bible was. Hence, they could not take the Bible for their guide, for they did not know what constituted the Bible. Would our Divine Saviour, if He intended man to learn his religion from a book, have left the Christian world for three hundred years without that book? Most assuredly not.
Not only for three hundred years was the world left without the Bible, but for 1,400 years the Christian world was left without the Sacred Book.
Before the art of printing was invented, Bibles were rare things. Bibles were costly things. Now, you must all be aware, if you have read history at all, that the art of printing was invented only a little more than four hundred years ago, about the middle of the Fifteenth Century, and about one hundred years before there was a Protestant in the world.
As I have said, before printing was invented books were rare and costly things. Historians tell us that, in the Eleventh Century, eight hundred years ago, Bibles were so rare and costly that it took a fortune, a considerable fortune, to buy oneself a copy of the Bible! Before the art of printing, everything had to be done with the pen upon parchment or sheepskin. It was, therefore, a tedious and slow operation, a costly operation.
Now, in order to arrive at the probable cost of a Bible at that time, let us suppose that a man should work ten years to make a copy of the Bible and earn a dollar a day. Well, then, the cost of that Bible would be $3,650. Now, let us suppose that a man should work at the copying of the Bible for twenty years, as historians say it would have taken him at that time, not having the conveniences and improvements to aid him that we have now. Then, at a dollar a day, for twenty years, the cost of a Bible would be nearly $8,000.
Suppose I came and said to you, “My dear people, save your soul, for if you lose your soul all is lost.” You would ask, “What are we to do to save our souls?” The Protestant preacher would say to you, “You must get a Bible. You can get one at such-and-such a shop.” You would ask the cost and be told it was $8,000. You would exclaim, “The Lord save us! And can we not go to Heaven without that book?” The answer would be: “No, you must have the Bible and read it.” You murmur at the price, but are asked, “Is not your soul worth $8,000?” Yes, of course it is, but you say you do not have the money, and if you cannot get a Bible, and your salvation depends upon it, evidently you would have to remain outside the Kingdom of Heaven. This would be a hopeless condition, indeed.
For 1,400 years the world was left without a Bible — not one in ten thousand, not one in twenty thousand, before the art of printing was invented, had the Bible. And would our Divine Lord have left the world without that book if it was necessary to man’s salvation? Most assuredly not.
But let us suppose for a moment that all had Bibles, that Bibles were written from the beginning, and that every man, woman, and child had a copy. What good would that book be to people who did not know how to read it? It is a blind thing to such persons.
Even now one-half the inhabitants of the earth cannot read. Moreover, as the Bible was written in Greek and Hebrew, it would be necessary to know these languages in order to be able to read it.
But it is said that we have it translated now in French, English, and other languages of the day. Yes, but are you sure you have a faithful translation? If not, you have not the Word of God. If you have a false translation, it is the work of man. How shall you ascertain that? How shall you find out if you have a faithful translation from the Greek and Hebrew?
“I do not know Greek or Hebrew,” says my separated friend; “for my translation I must depend upon the opinion of the learned.”
Well, then, my dear friends, suppose the learned should be divided in their opinions, and some of them should say it is good, and some false? Then your faith is gone, you must begin doubting and hesitating, because you do not know if the translation is good.
Now with regard to the Protestant translation of the Bible, allow me to tell you that the most learned among Protestants tell you that your translation, the King James edition, is a very faulty translation and is full of errors. Your own learned divines, preachers, and bishops have written whole volumes to point out all the errors that are there in the King James translation, and Protestants of various denominations acknowledge it.
Some years ago, when I lived in St. Louis, there was held in that city a convention of ministers. All denominations were invited, the object being to arrange for a new translation of the Bible, and give it to the world. The proceedings of the convention were published daily in the Missouri Republican. A very learned Presbyterian, I think it was, stood up, and, urging the necessity of giving a new translation of the Bible, said that in the present Protestant translation of the Bible there were no less than 30,000 errors.
And you say, my dear Protestant friends, that the Bible is your guide and teacher. What a teacher, with 30,000 errors! The Lord save us from such a teacher! One error is bad enough, but thirty thousand is a little too much.
Another preacher stood up in the convention, I think he was a Baptist, and, urging the necessity of giving a new translation of the Bible, said for thirty years past the world was without the Word of God, for the Bible we have is not the Word of God at all.
Here are your own preachers for you. You all read the newspapers, no doubt, my friends, and must know what happened in England a few years ago. A petition was sent to Parliament for an allowance of a few thousand pounds sterling for the purpose of getting up a new translation of the Bible. And that movement was headed and carried on by Protestant bishops and clergymen.
But, my dear people, how can you be sure of your faith? You say the Bible is your guide, but you cannot be sure that you have the faith. Let us suppose for a moment that all have a Bible which is a faithful translation. Even then it cannot be the guide of man, because the private interpretation of the Bible is not infallible, but, on the contrary, most fallible. It is the source and fountain of all kinds of errors and heresies and all kinds of blasphemous doctrines. Do not be shocked, my dear friends. Just be calm and listen to my arguments.
There are now throughout the world 350 different denominations or churches, and all of them say the Bible is their guide and teacher. I suppose they are all sincere. Are all of them true churches? This is an impossibility. Truth is one as God is one, and there can be no contradiction. Every man in his senses sees that every one of them cannot be true, for they differ and contradict one another, and cannot, therefore, be all true. The Protestants say the man that reads the Bible right and prayerfully has truth, and they all say that they read it right.
Let us suppose that there is an Episcopal minister. He is a sincere, honest, well-meaning and prayerful man. He reads his Bible in a prayerful spirit, and from the word of the Bible, he says it is clear that there must be bishops. For without bishops there can be no priests, without priests no Sacraments, and without Sacraments no Church. The Presbyterian is a sincere and well-meaning man. He reads the Bible also, and deduces that there should be no bishops, but only presbyters. “Here is the Bible,” says the Episcopalian, and “here is the Bible to give you the lie,” says the Presbyterian. Yet both of them are prayerful and well-meaning men.
Then the Baptist comes in. He is a well-meaning, honest man, and prayerful also. “Well,” says the Baptist, “have you ever been baptized?” “I was,” says the Episcopalian, “when I was a baby.”
“And so was I,” says the Presbyterian, “when I was a baby.” “But,” says the Baptist, “you are going to Hell as sure as you live.”
Next comes the Unitarian, well-meaning, honest, and sincere. “Well,” says the Unitarian, “allow me to tell you that you are a pack of idolators. You worship a man for a God who is no God at all.” And he gives several texts from the Bible to prove it, while the others are stopping their ears that they may not hear the blasphemies of the Unitarian. And they all contend that they have the true meaning of the Bible.
Next comes the Methodist, and he says, “My friends, have you got any religion at all?” “Of course we have,” they say. “Did you ever feel religion,” says the Methodist, “the spirit of God moving within you?” “Nonsense,” says the Presbyterian, “we are guided by our reason and judgment.” “Well,” says the Methodist, “if you never felt religion, you never had it, and will go to Hell for eternity.”
The Universalist next comes in, and hears them threatening one another with eternal hellfire. “Why,” says he, “you are a strange set of people. Do you not understand the Word of God? There is no Hell at all. That idea is good enough to scare old women and children,” and he proves it from the Bible.
Now comes in the Quaker. He urges them not to quarrel, and advises that they do not baptize at all. He is the sincerest of men, and gives the Bible for his faith.
Another comes in and says, “Baptize the men and leave the women alone. For the Bible says, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter the Kingdom of Heaven. “So,” says he, “the women are all right, but baptize the men.”
Next comes in the Shaker and he says, “You are a presumptuous people. Do you not know that the Bible tells you that you must work out your salvation in fear and trembling, and you do not tremble at all. My brethren, if you want to go to Heaven shake, my brethren, shake!”
I have here brought together seven or eight denominations, differing one from another, or understanding the Bible in different ways, illustrative of the fruits of private interpretation. What, then, if I brought together the 350 different denominations, all taking the Bible for their guide and teaching, and all differing from one another? Are they all right? One says there is a Hell, and another says there is not Hell. Are both right? One says Christ is God, another says He is not. One says they are unessential. One says Baptism is a requisite, and another says it is not. Are both true? This is an impossibility, my friends. All cannot be true.
Who, then, is true? He that has the true meaning of the Bible, you say. But the Bible does not tell us who that is, the Bible never settles the quarrel. It is not the teacher.
The Bible, my dear people, is a good book. We Catholics admit that the Bible is the Word of God, the language of inspiration, and every Catholic is exhorted to read the Bible. But good as it is, the Bible, my dear friends, does not explain itself. It is a good book, the Word of God, the language of inspiration, but your explanation of the Bible is not the language of inspiration. Your understanding of the Bible is not inspired, for surely you do not pretend to be inspired!
It is with the Bible as it is with the Constitution of the United States. When Washington and his associates established the Constitution and the Supreme Law of the United States, they did not say to the people of the States: “Let every man read the Constitution and make a government unto himself. Let every man make his own explanation of the Constitution.” If Washington had done that, there never would have been a United States. The people would all have been divided among themselves, and the country would have been cut up into a thousand different divisions or governments.
What did Washington do? He gave the people the Constitution and the Supreme Law, and appointed his Supreme Court and Supreme Judge of the Constitution. And these are to give the true explanation of the Constitution to all the American citizens, all without exception, from the President to the beggar. All are bound to go by the decisions of the Supreme Court, and it is this and this alone that can keep the people together and preserve the Union of the United States. At the moment the people take the interpretation of the Constitution into their own hands, there is the end of the union.
And so it is in every government. So it is here and everywhere. There is a Constitution, a Supreme Court or Law, a Supreme Judge of that Constitution, and that Supreme Court is to give us the meaning of the Constitution and the Law.
In every well-ruled country there must be such a thing as this: a Supreme Law, Supreme Court, Supreme Judge, that all the people abide by. All are bound by decisions, and without that, no government could stand. Even among the Indian tribes such a condition of affairs exists. How are they kept together? By their chief, who is their dictator.
So our Divine Savior also has established His Supreme Court, His Supreme Judge, to give us the true meaning of the Scriptures, and to give us the true revelation and doctrines of the Word of Jesus. The Son of the Living God has pledged His Word that this Supreme Court is infallible, and therefore, the true Catholic never doubts.
“I believe,” says the Catholic, “because the Church teaches me so. I believe the Church because God has commanded me to believe her.” Jesus said: “Tell the Church. And if he will not hear the Church, let him be to thee as the heathen and publican.” [Matt 18:17]. “He that believeth you believeth Me.” said Christ, “and he that despiseth you despiseth Me.” [Luke 10:16]. Therefore, the Catholic believes because God has spoken, and upon the authority of God.
But our Protestant friends say, “We believe in the Bible.” Very well, how do you understand the Bible? “Well,” says the Protestant, “to the best of my opinion and judgment this is the meaning of the text.” He is not sure of it, but to the best of his opinion and judgment. This, my friends, is only the testimony of a man. It is only human faith, not Divine Faith.
It is Divine Faith alone by which we give honor and glory to God, by which we adore His infinite wisdom and veracity. That adoration and worship is necessary for salvation.
I have now proved to you that private interpretation of the Scripture cannot be the guide or teacher of man. In another lecture I shall prove that the Catholic Church is the only true Church of God, and that there is no other.
Jesus went out with his disciples across the Kidron valley
to where there was a garden,
into which he and his disciples entered.
Judas his betrayer also knew the place,
because Jesus had often met there with his disciples.
So Judas got a band of soldiers and guards
from the chief priests and the Pharisees
and went there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
Jesus, knowing everything that was going to happen to him,
went out and said to them, “Whom are you looking for?”
They answered him, “Jesus the Nazorean.”
He said to them, “I AM.”
Judas his betrayer was also with them.
When he said to them, “I AM, “
they turned away and fell to the ground.
So he again asked them, “Whom are you looking for?”
They said, “Jesus the Nazorean.”
Jesus answered, “I told you that I AM. So if you are looking for me, let these men go.”
This was to fulfill what he had said, “I have not lost any of those you gave me.”
Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it,
struck the high priest’s slave, and cut off his right ear.
The slave’s name was Malchus.
Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its scabbard. Shall I not drink the cup that the Father gave me?”
So the band of soldiers, the tribune, and the Jewish guards seized Jesus,
bound him, and brought him to Annas first.
He was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,
who was high priest that year.
It was Caiaphas who had counseled the Jews
that it was better that one man should die rather than the people.
Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus.
Now the other disciple was known to the high priest,
and he entered the courtyard of the high priest with Jesus.
But Peter stood at the gate outside.
So the other disciple, the acquaintance of the high priest,
went out and spoke to the gatekeeper and brought Peter in.
Then the maid who was the gatekeeper said to Peter,
“You are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?”
He said, “I am not.”
Now the slaves and the guards were standing around a charcoal fire
that they had made, because it was cold,
and were warming themselves.
Peter was also standing there keeping warm.
The high priest questioned Jesus
about his disciples and about his doctrine.
Jesus answered him, “I have spoken publicly to the world. I have always taught in a synagogue or in the temple area where all the Jews gather, and in secret I have said nothing. Why ask me? Ask those who heard me what I said to them. They know what I said.”
When he had said this,
one of the temple guards standing there struck Jesus and said,
“Is this the way you answer the high priest?”
Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong; but if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?”
Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
Now Simon Peter was standing there keeping warm.
And they said to him,
“You are not one of his disciples, are you?”
He denied it and said,
“I am not.”
One of the slaves of the high priest,
a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off, said,
“Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?”
Again Peter denied it.
And immediately the cock crowed.
Then they brought Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium.
It was morning.
And they themselves did not enter the praetorium,
in order not to be defiled so that they could eat the Passover.
So Pilate came out to them and said,
“What charge do you bring against this man?”
They answered and said to him,
“If he were not a criminal,
we would not have handed him over to you.”
At this, Pilate said to them,
“Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law.”
The Jews answered him,
“We do not have the right to execute anyone, “
in order that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled
that he said indicating the kind of death he would die.
So Pilate went back into the praetorium
and summoned Jesus and said to him,
“Are you the King of the Jews?”
Jesus answered, “Do you say this on your own or have others told you about me?”
“I am not a Jew, am I?
Your own nation and the chief priests handed you over to me.
What have you done?”
Jesus answered, “My kingdom does not belong to this world. If my kingdom did belong to this world, my attendants would be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not here.”
So Pilate said to him,
“Then you are a king?”
Jesus answered, “You say I am a king. For this I was born and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice.”
Pilate said to him, “What is truth?”
When he had said this,
he again went out to the Jews and said to them,
“I find no guilt in him.
But you have a custom that I release one prisoner to you at Passover.
Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”
They cried out again,
“Not this one but Barabbas!”
Now Barabbas was a revolutionary.
Then Pilate took Jesus and had him scourged.
And the soldiers wove a crown out of thorns and placed it on his head,
and clothed him in a purple cloak,
and they came to him and said,
“Hail, King of the Jews!”
And they struck him repeatedly.
Once more Pilate went out and said to them,
“Look, I am bringing him out to you,
so that you may know that I find no guilt in him.”
So Jesus came out,
wearing the crown of thorns and the purple cloak.
And he said to them, “Behold, the man!”
When the chief priests and the guards saw him they cried out,
“Crucify him, crucify him!”
Pilate said to them,
“Take him yourselves and crucify him.
I find no guilt in him.”
The Jews answered,
“We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die,
because he made himself the Son of God.”
Now when Pilate heard this statement,
he became even more afraid,
and went back into the praetorium and said to Jesus,
“Where are you from?”
Jesus did not answer him.
So Pilate said to him,
“Do you not speak to me?
Do you not know that I have power to release you
and I have power to crucify you?”
Jesus answered him, “You would have no power over me if it had not been given to you from above. For this reason the one who handed me over to you has the greater sin.”
Consequently, Pilate tried to release him; but the Jews cried out,
“If you release him, you are not a Friend of Caesar.
Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.”
When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus out
and seated him on the judge’s bench
in the place called Stone Pavement, in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
It was preparation day for Passover, and it was about noon.
And he said to the Jews,
“Behold, your king!”
They cried out,
“Take him away, take him away! Crucify him!”
Pilate said to them,
“Shall I crucify your king?”
The chief priests answered,
“We have no king but Caesar.”
Then he handed him over to them to be crucified.
So they took Jesus, and, carrying the cross himself,
he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull,
in Hebrew, Golgotha.
There they crucified him, and with him two others,
one on either side, with Jesus in the middle.
Pilate also had an inscription written and put on the cross.
“Jesus the Nazorean, the King of the Jews.”
Now many of the Jews read this inscription,
because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city;
and it was written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek.
So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate,
“Do not write ‘The King of the Jews,’
but that he said, ‘I am the King of the Jews’.”
“What I have written, I have written.”
When the soldiers had crucified Jesus,
they took his clothes and divided them into four shares,
a share for each soldier.
They also took his tunic, but the tunic was seamless,
woven in one piece from the top down.
So they said to one another,
“Let’s not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it will be, “
in order that the passage of Scripture might be fulfilled that says: They divided my garments among them, and for my vesture they cast lots.
This is what the soldiers did.
Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary of Magdala.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple there whom he loved
he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son.”
Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother.”
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.
After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, “I thirst.”
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said, “It is finished.”
And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit.
Here all kneel and pause for a short time.
Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and that they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled: Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says: They will look upon him whom they have pierced.
After this, Joseph of Arimathea,
secretly a disciple of Jesus for fear of the Jews,
asked Pilate if he could remove the body of Jesus.
And Pilate permitted it.
So he came and took his body.
Nicodemus, the one who had first come to him at night,
also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes
weighing about one hundred pounds.
They took the body of Jesus
and bound it with burial cloths along with the spices,
according to the Jewish burial custom.
Now in the place where he had been crucified there was a garden,
and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had yet been buried.
So they laid Jesus there because of the Jewish preparation day;
for the tomb was close by.
Jesus asked that the Feast of the Divine Mercy be preceded by a Novena to the Divine Mercy which would begin on Good Friday. He gave St. Faustina an intention to pray for on each day of the Novena, saving for the last day the most difficult intention of all, the lukewarm and indifferent of whom He said:
“These souls cause Me more suffering than any others; it was from such souls that My soul felt the most revulsion in the Garden of Olives. It was on their account that I said: ‘My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass Me by.’ The last hope of salvation for them is to flee to My Mercy.”
In her diary, St. Faustina wrote that Jesus told her:
“On each day of the novena you will bring to My heart a different group of souls and you will immerse them in this ocean of My mercy … On each day you will beg My Father, on the strength of My passion, for the graces for these souls.”
The different souls prayed for on each day of the novena are:
The Chaplet of Divine Mercy may also be offered each day for the day’s intention, but is not strictly necessary to the Novena.
First Day “Today bring to Me all mankind, especially all sinners,
and immerse them in the ocean of My mercy. In this way you will console Me in the bitter grief into which the loss of souls plunges Me.”
Most Merciful Jesus, whose very nature it is to have compassion on us and to forgive us, do not look upon our sins but upon our trust which we place in Your infinite goodness. Receive us all into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart, and never let us escape from It. We beg this of You by Your love which unites You to the Father and the Holy Spirit.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon all mankind and especially upon poor sinners, all enfolded in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. For the sake of His sorrowful Passion show us Your mercy, that we may praise the omnipotence of Your mercy for ever and ever. Amen.
Second Day “Today bring to Me the Souls of Priests and Religious,
and immerse them in My unfathomable mercy. It was they who gave me strength to endure My bitter Passion. Through them as through channels My mercy flows out upon mankind.”
Most Merciful Jesus, from whom comes all that is good, increase Your grace in men and women consecrated to Your service,* that they may perform worthy works of mercy; and that all who see them may glorify the Father of Mercy who is in heaven.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the company of chosen ones in Your vineyard — upon the souls of priests and religious; and endow them with the strength of Your blessing. For the love of the Heart of Your Son in which they are enfolded, impart to them Your power and light, that they may be able to guide others in the way of salvation and with one voice sing praise to Your boundless mercy for ages without end. Amen.
* In the original text, Saint Faustina uses the pronoun “us” since she was offering this prayer as a consecrated religious sister. The wording adapted here is intended to make the prayer suitable for universal use.
“Today bring to Me all Devout and Faithful Souls,
and immerse them in the ocean of My mercy. These souls brought me consolation on the Way of the Cross. They were a drop of consolation in the midst of an ocean of bitterness.”
Most Merciful Jesus, from the treasury of Your mercy, You impart Your graces in great abundance to each and all. Receive us into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart and never let us escape from It. We beg this grace of You by that most wondrous love for the heavenly Father with which Your Heart burns so fiercely.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon faithful souls, as upon the inheritance of Your Son. For the sake of His sorrowful Passion, grant them Your blessing and surround them with Your constant protection. Thus may they never fail in love or lose the treasure of the holy faith, but rather, with all the hosts of Angels and Saints, may they glorify Your boundless mercy for endless ages. Amen.
“Today bring to Me those who do not believe in God and those who do not know Me,
I was thinking also of them during My bitter Passion, and their future zeal comforted My Heart. Immerse them in the ocean of My mercy.”
Most compassionate Jesus, You are the Light of the whole world. Receive into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart the souls of those who do not believe in God and of those who as yet do not know You. Let the rays of Your grace enlighten them that they, too, together with us, may extol Your wonderful mercy; and do not let them escape from the abode which is Your Most Compassionate Heart.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the souls of those who do not believe in You, and of those who as yet do not know You, but who are enclosed in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. Draw them to the light of the Gospel. These souls do not know what great happiness it is to love You. Grant that they, too, may extol the generosity of Your mercy for endless ages. Amen.
*Our Lord’s original words here were “the pagans.” Since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII, the Church has seen fit to replace this term with clearer and more appropriate terminology.
Fifth Day “Today bring to Me the Souls of those who have separated themselves from My Church*,
and immerse them in the ocean of My mercy. During My bitter Passion they tore at My Body and Heart, that is, My Church. As they return to unity with the Church My wounds heal and in this way they alleviate My Passion.”
Most Merciful Jesus, Goodness Itself, You do not refuse light to those who seek it of You. Receive into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart the souls of those who have separated themselves from Your Church. Draw them by Your light into the unity of the Church, and do not let them escape from the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart; but bring it about that they, too, come to glorify the generosity of Your mercy.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the souls of those who have separated themselves from Your Son’s Church, who have squandered Your blessings and misused Your graces by obstinately persisting in their errors. Do not look upon their errors, but upon the love of Your own Son and upon His bitter Passion, which He underwent for their sake, since they, too, are enclosed in His Most Compassionate Heart. Bring it about that they also may glorify Your great mercy for endless ages. Amen.
*Our Lord’s original words here were “heretics and schismatics,” since He spoke to Saint Faustina within the context of her times. As of the Second Vatican Council, Church authorities have seen fit not to use those designations in accordance with the explanation given in the Council’s Decree on Ecumenism (n.3). Every pope since the Council has reaffirmed that usage. Saint Faustina herself, her heart always in harmony with the mind of the Church, most certainly would have agreed. When at one time, because of the decisions of her superiors and father confessor, she was not able to execute Our Lord’s inspirations and orders, she declared: “I will follow Your will insofar as You will permit me to do so through Your representative. O my Jesus ” I give priority to the voice of the Church over the voice with which You speak to me” (497). The Lord confirmed her action and praised her for it.
Today bring to Me the Meek and Humble Souls and the Souls of Little Children,
and immerse them in My mercy. These souls most closely resemble My Heart. They strengthened Me during My bitter agony. I saw them as earthly Angels, who will keep vigil at My altars. I pour out upon them whole torrents of grace. I favor humble souls with My confidence.
Most Merciful Jesus, You yourself have said, “Learn from Me for I am meek and humble of heart.” Receive into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart all meek and humble souls and the souls of little children. These souls send all heaven into ecstasy and they are the heavenly Father’s favorites. They are a sweet-smelling bouquet before the throne of God; God Himself takes delight in their fragrance. These souls have a permanent abode in Your Most Compassionate Heart, O Jesus, and they unceasingly sing out a hymn of love and mercy.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon meek souls, upon humble souls, and upon little children who are enfolded in the abode which is the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. These souls bear the closest resemblance to Your Son. Their fragrance rises from the earth and reaches Your very throne. Father of mercy and of all goodness, I beg You by the love You bear these souls and by the delight You take in them: Bless the whole world, that all souls together may sing out the praises of Your mercy for endless ages. Amen.
Today bring to Me the Souls who especially venerate and glorify My Mercy*,
and immerse them in My mercy. These souls sorrowed most over my Passion and entered most deeply into My spirit. They are living images of My Compassionate Heart. These souls will shine with a special brightness in the next life. Not one of them will go into the fire of hell. I shall particularly defend each one of them at the hour of death.
Most Merciful Jesus, whose Heart is Love Itself, receive into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart the souls of those who particularly extol and venerate the greatness of Your mercy. These souls are mighty with the very power of God Himself. In the midst of all afflictions and adversities they go forward, confident of Your mercy; and united to You, O Jesus, they carry all mankind on their shoulders. These souls will not be judged severely, but Your mercy will embrace them as they depart from this life.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the souls who glorify and venerate Your greatest attribute, that of Your fathomless mercy, and who are enclosed in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. These souls are a living Gospel; their hands are full of deeds of mercy, and their hearts, overflowing with joy, sing a canticle of mercy to You, O Most High! I beg You O God:
Show them Your mercy according to the hope and trust they have placed in You. Let there be accomplished in them the promise of Jesus, who said to them that during their life, but especially at the hour of death, the souls who will venerate this fathomless mercy of His, He, Himself, will defend as His glory. Amen.
*The text leads one to conclude that in the first prayer directed to Jesus, Who is the Redeemer, it is “victim” souls and contemplatives that are being prayed for; those persons, that is, that voluntarily offered themselves to God for the salvation of their neighbor (see Col 1:24; 2 Cor 4:12). This explains their close union with the Savior and the extraordinary efficacy that their invisible activity has for others. In the second prayer, directed to the Father from whom comes “every worthwhile gift and every genuine benefit,”we recommend the “active” souls, who promote devotion to The Divine Mercy and exercise with it all the other works that lend themselves to the spiritual and material uplifting of their brethren.
Eighth Day “Today bring to Me the Souls who are in the prison of Purgatory,
and immerse them in the abyss of My mercy. Let the torrents of My Blood cool down their scorching flames. All these souls are greatly loved by Me. They are making retribution to My justice. It is in your power to bring them relief. Draw all the indulgences from the treasury of My Church and offer them on their behalf. Oh, if you only knew the torments they suffer, you would continually offer for them the alms of the spirit and pay off their debt to My justice.”
Most Merciful Jesus, You Yourself have said that You desire mercy; so I bring into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart the souls in Purgatory, souls who are very dear to You, and yet, who must make retribution to Your justice. May the streams of Blood and Water which gushed forth from Your Heart put out the flames of Purgatory, that there, too, the power of Your mercy may be celebrated.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon the souls suffering in Purgatory, who are enfolded in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. I beg You, by the sorrowful Passion of Jesus Your Son, and by all the bitterness with which His most sacred Soul was flooded: Manifest Your mercy to the souls who are under Your just scrutiny. Look upon them in no other way but only through the Wounds of Jesus, Your dearly beloved Son; for we firmly believe that there is no limit to Your goodness and compassion. Amen.
Ninth Day “Today bring to Me the Souls who have become Lukewarm,
and immerse them in the abyss of My mercy. These souls wound My Heart most painfully. My soul suffered the most dreadful loathing in the Garden of Olives because of lukewarm souls. They were the reason I cried out: ‘Father, take this cup away from Me, if it be Your will.’ For them, the last hope of salvation is to run to My mercy.”
Most compassionate Jesus, You are Compassion Itself. I bring lukewarm souls into the abode of Your Most Compassionate Heart. In this fire of Your pure love, let these tepid souls who, like corpses, filled You with such deep loathing, be once again set aflame. O Most Compassionate Jesus, exercise the omnipotence of Your mercy and draw them into the very ardor of Your love, and bestow upon them the gift of holy love, for nothing is beyond Your power.
Eternal Father, turn Your merciful gaze upon lukewarm souls who are nonetheless enfolded in the Most Compassionate Heart of Jesus. Father of Mercy, I beg You by the bitter Passion of Your Son and by His three-hour agony on the Cross: Let them, too, glorify the abyss of Your mercy. Amen.
Diary, Saint Maria Faustina Kowalska, Divine Mercy in My Soul (c) 1987 Congregation of Marians of the Immaculate Conception, Stockbridge, MA 01263. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
“Quite frankly, it is more acceptable in our society today to defend the rights of Gitmo detainees than Catholic priests…”
Straight Talk About the Catholic Church
by Bill Donohue
When the Boston Globe exposed massive wrongdoing in the Boston Archdiocese in 2002, Catholics were understandably angry. And when more horror stories surfaced elsewhere, we were furious. But now our anger is turning on those who are distorting the truth about priestly sexual abuse. That some are exploiting this issue for ideological and financial profit seems plain.
Every time a new wave of accusations surfaces in one diocese, not coincidentally we see a spike in accusations in other dioceses. What is not often reported is that the vast majority of new accusations extend back decades. For example, for the first quarter of this year, 80 percent of the cases of alleged abuse involve incidences that occurred before 2000.
In March, an 80 year-old man came forward in St. Louis claiming he was abused 70 years ago by a priest who has been dead for a half century. This is not an anomaly: the same phenomenon has happened in other dioceses. Unfortunately, too often bishops have been quick to settle, thus inspiring more claims. When $225,000 is dished out to a Michigan man who claims he was abused in the 1950s by a priest who died in 1983—and the diocese admits the accusation is unsubstantiated—it encourages fraud.
A common belief, fostered by the media, is that there is a widespread sexual abuse problem in the Catholic Church today. The evidence is to the contrary: In 2004, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice issued its landmark study and found that most of the abuse occurred during the heyday of the sexual revolution, from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. What we are hearing about today are almost all old cases. To wit: from 2005 to 2009, the average number of new credible accusations made against over 40,000 priests was 8.6. This is a tribute to the reform efforts that have taken place: 5 million children and 2 million adults have gone through a safe environment program. Indeed, there is no religious, or secular, institution that can match this record, either in terms of the low rate of abuse or the extensiveness of a training program.
Penn State professor Philip Jenkins has studied this problem for years. After looking at the John Jay data, which studied priestly sexual abuse from 1950-2002, he found that “of the 4,392 accused priests, almost 56 percent faced only one misconduct allegation, and at least some of these would certainly vanish under detailed scrutiny.” Moreover, Jenkins wrote that “Out of 100,000 priests active in the U.S. in this half-century, a cadre of just 149 individuals—one priest out of every 750—accounted for over a quarter of all allegations of clergy abuse.” In other words, almost all priests have never had anything to do with sexual molestation.
The refrain that child rape is a reality in the Church is twice wrong: let’s get it straight—they weren’t children and they weren’t raped. We know from the John Jay study that most of the victims have been adolescents, and that the most common abuse has been inappropriate touching (inexcusable though this is, it is not rape). The Boston Globe correctly said of the John Jay report that “more than three-quarters of the victims were post pubescent, meaning the abuse did not meet the clinical definition of pedophilia.” In other words, the issue is homosexuality, not pedophilia.
When the National Review Board, a group of notable Catholics, issued its study in 2004, the team’s chief, attorney Robert S. Bennett, said that “any evaluation of the causes and context of the current crisis must be cognizant of the fact that more than 80 percent of the abuse at issue was of a homosexual nature.” One of the members, Dr. Paul McHugh, former psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins, has said that “This behavior was homosexual predation on American Catholic youth, yet it’s not being discussed.” By the way, the figures after 2004 haven’t changed—eight in ten cases involve homosexuality. Worldwide, the Vatican estimates that 60 percent of the cases are same-sex, 30 percent are heterosexual and 10 percent involve pedophilia.
Though the data belie the conventional wisdom, it’s hard to break stereotypes. The assault on priests as child abusers has become a staple in the arsenal of Jay Leno, Bill Maher, Denis Leary, George Lopez, “The View” panelists, and others. So it is hardly surprising to learn that a stranger approached New York Archbishop Timothy Dolan at the Denver airport last month saying, “I can’t look at you or any other priest without thinking of a sexual abuser.” Indeed, most priests I know do not dress in priestly garb when traveling—they’ve had to deal with similar instances.
Why are priests being singled out when the sexual abuse of minors among other segments of the population is on-going today? According to Virginia Commonwealth University professor Charol Shakeshaft, the nation’s leading education expert on this issue, “the physical sexual abuse of students in schools is likely more than 100 times the abuse by priests.” We know from the work of Jenkins, and others, that there is no reason to believe that the rate of abuse is higher among Catholic priests than among the clergy of other religions. Moreover, there has been a slew of stories over the past few years detailing the extent of this problem in the Orthodox Jewish community; some rabbis still insist that sexual abuse cases should be handled internally. No wonder Jenkins maintains, “As a result of the furious investigations of the past decades, and particularly the John Jay study, the U.S. Catholic clergy are now the only major group on the planet that has ever been subjected to such a detailed examination of abuse complaints, using internal evidence that could not have come to light in any other way.”
It would be nice if we could all get on the same page regarding the proper remedies. But just three months ago, Federal District Court Judge Jack B. Weinstein took a “compassionate” view toward a man found guilty of collecting thousands of explicit pictures of children, as young as three, that he downloaded from a child porn website. Weinstein slammed existing legal penalties for the crime, saying, “We’re destroying lives unnecessarily. At the most, they should be receiving treatment and supervision.”
How often has the Church been ripped for following the advice of psychiatrists who thought they could “fix” molesters? To be sure, that was the zeitgeist several decades ago, as virtually every institution and profession can testify. Indeed, the punitive approach so favored today would have been cause for condemnation at that time had it been followed. Interestingly, a report on this situation in Ireland correctly concluded that had more bishops followed canon law, instead of seeking a more “compassionate” strategy, much of the problem could have been avoided.
The real damage done by the therapeutic approach is that it fostered the phenomenon of reassigning priests after they were treated. The exact same thing happened in the teaching profession. Indeed, moving treated teachers to new school districts is so common that it is called “passing the trash.” While moving treated priests to new parishes is no longer tolerated, the New York Times found that the practice of moving abusers around who work in New York’s state-run homes is commonplace.
Mandatory reporting of sexual crimes is not uniform in law or practice. In New York State, several attempts to blanket the clergy and other professionals have been met with resistance. Not by the bishops—but by Family Planning Advocates (the lobbying arm of Planned Parenthood) and the New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU). Planned Parenthood counselors routinely learn about cases of statutory rape; mandatory reporting would obviously work against their clients’ interests. Even where mandatory reporting is law, such as in the state-run homes, it is seldom followed (more than 95 percent of the time the authorities are not contacted).
Calls for suspending the statute of limitations have regularly been made. But even if one sets aside the fundamental due process reasons why such laws exist, what is most disturbing about this issue is that they almost never apply to public employees. Unless explicitly stated, laws that revise the statute of limitations leave untouched those in education: they are protected by “sovereign immunity,” making transparent what the real goal is—“getting the priests.” And when proposed changes apply to teachers, in every state where this has happened, teachers’ unions and school superintendents have organized to register their objections. Why, then, should bishops who protest these revisions be criticized for doing so?
When the bishops met in Dallas in 2002 to consider reforms, panic gripped the conference. If there was one cleric who saw what the rush to judgment would do to the rights of priests it was the late Cardinal Avery Dulles. Sadly, events have proven him right. Quite frankly, it is more acceptable in our society today to defend the rights of Gitmo detainees than Catholic priests.
Grand juries are launched with the specific directive of investigating “sexual abuse of minors by individuals associated with religious organizations and denominations,” but then quickly evolve into the single-minded pursuit of priests; in Philadelphia, those who initially reviewed the accusations weren’t even called to testify. The unseemly practice of attorneys searching for new “victims” in bars and prisons is a disgrace. Just as sick is the sight of attorneys advertising for alleged victims of priests, but refusing to represent those abused by others. It has gotten so bad that dioceses are now being sued for “wrongful death” in cases where an alleged victim kills himself after his accusation was found wanting. And when AP runs a story on the “scandal” of allowing ex-priests to go unmonitored—as if someone is monitoring non-priest abusers—the bias shines through.
There is a huge difference between an accusation, a credible accusation, a substantiated accusation and a finding of guilt. But not when it applies to priests. I once had a female reporter lambaste me in my office when I expressed my opposition to proposals calling for all dioceses to publish the names of accused priests. I then asked her for her boss’ name and phone number. Startled, she asked why. “Because I want to press charges against you for sexually harassing me,” I intoned, “and then I want to see your name posted on your employer’s website.” She got the point.
BishopAccountabilty.org is accessed by reporters and lawyers for information on priestly sexual abuse, though the standards it uses cannot pass the smell test. It admits that the database “is based solely on allegations reported publicly” and that it “does not confirm the veracity of any actual allegation.” Swell. Furthermore, it says that “If an individual is ‘cleared’ or ‘exonerated’ by an internal church investigation and/or a diocesan review board decision, the individual remains in the database.” Ditto for cases where a priest faces an allegation for an act which occurred after he left the Catholic Church; even lawsuits against the dead are listed. There is no other group in the U.S. which is subjected to such gross unfairness. No wonder wildly exaggerated claims have been made based off of such collected “evidence.”
Perhaps no reform made in Dallas has proven to be more intrinsically dangerous than demands for “zero tolerance.” It all sounds so macho, but priests on the ground know first-hand what it means. Obviously, there should be no wiggle room in the most serious cases, but when priests are sued for “emotional” abuse, or violating “boundary issues,” the door is left wide open for exploitation. Dulles got it right when he said that “A priest who uttered an inappropriate word or made a single imprudent gesture is treated in the same way as a serial rapist.” Even worse, we now have the specter of a priest being suspended because a woman heard a kid in a playground call him a pedophile; she promptly called the cops. Joe Maher, president of Opus Bono Sacerdotii, a group that monitors the incidence of falsely accused priests, says that “at least a thousand priests…have been removed and remain out of public ministry because of unproven accusations.”
Because the Catholic Church is often criticized for not following a “zero tolerance” policy, the Catholic League did some investigation of its own. Here’s what we found. Almost every media outlet, teachers’ union and religious organization we examined does not have a “zero tolerance” policy in place for sexual misconduct (or any other offense). The few that do make no mention of mandatory reporting.
These organizations are not wrong for not having the same kind of policy that the Catholic Church has. The New York Times seems to understand this matter when applied to schools. In an editorial titled, “The Trouble With ‘Zero Tolerance,’” it noted that schools which have adopted these policies have created conditions where children are being “arrested for profanity, talking back, shoving matches and other behavior that would once have been resolved with detention or meetings with the students’ parents.” The NYCLU agreed saying, “De facto zero tolerance causes wrongful arrests, searches and suspensions of students in too many of the city’s neediest schools.” Yet as recently as April 2, the Times issued another editorial insisting the bishops follow this flawed policy.
No amount of reform will ever satisfy some. Attorneys like Jeffrey Anderson, and his well-greased friends at SNAP, a professional victims’ group, are dogmatic in their convictions; their hatred of the Catholic Church is palpable. Similarly, when others tell the bishops we’re going to “sue the s*** out of you,” and are informed that the goal is to put an “out of business” sign in front of every parish, school and charitable center, it is evident that the Church needs to fight back with greater vigor.
What accounts for the relentless attacks on the Church? Let’s face it: if its teachings were pro-abortion, pro-gay marriage and pro-women clergy, the dogs would have been called off years ago.
The British atheist Richard Dawkins is no fan of Catholicism. But he is honest enough to say that the Catholic Church “has been unfairly demonized over the issue, especially in Ireland and America.” Now if Dawkins gets it, why can’t others?
“New Evangelization”: The Meaning of a Definition
The Sectors Calling for the New Evangelization
Christians Facing These New Situations
A “New Evangelization” and Spirituality
New Ways of “Being Church”
The First Evangelization, Pastoral Solicitude and the New Evangelization
A Personal Encounter and Communion with Christ, the Goal of Transmitting the Faith
The Church Transmits the Faith Which She Herself Lives
The Word of God and Transmitting the Faith
The Pedagogy of the Faith
The Local Churches: Agents of Transmission
Rendering an Account: The Manner of Proclamation
The Fruits of Transmitting the Faith
Christian Initiation, the Evangelizing Process
Initial Proclamation and the Need for New Forms of Discourse on God
Initiation in the Faith; Education in the Truth
The Goal of an “Ecology of the Human Person”
Evangelizers and Educators as Witnesses
“Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age” (Mt 28:19,20). With these words, Jesus Christ, before he ascended to heaven to take his place at the right hand of God the Father (cf. Eph 1:20),sent his disciples forth to proclaim the Good News to the whole world. They were a small group who were called to be witnesses of Jesus of Nazareth, his earthly life, his teaching, his death and above all his resurrection (cf. Acts 1:22). Though this great task seemed an impossibility, the Lord Jesus offered them encouragement by promising the gift of the Paraclete, whom the Father will send in his name (cf. Jn 14:26) and who “will guide [them]… into all the truth” (Jn 16:13). In addition, he assured them of his abiding presence: “and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age” (Mt 28:20).
After Pentecost, when the fire of God’s love rested on the Apostles (cf. Acts 2:3) who were gathered together in prayer “with the women and Mary the Mother of Jesus, and with his brothers” (Acts 1:14), the Lord Jesus’ mandate began to be realized. The gift of the Holy Spirit, abundantly poured out by Jesus Christ (cf. Jn 3:34), was the beginning of the Church, which is missionary by its very nature. In fact, immediately after receiving the anointing of the Spirit, St. Peter the Apostle “stood…lifted up his voice” (Acts 2:14) and proclaimed salvation in the name of Jesus, whom “God has made…both Lord and Christ” (Acts 2:36).Transformed by the gift of the Spirit, the disciples went out into the then-known world to spread the “Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God” (Mk 1:1). Their proclamation reached the Mediterranean area, Europe, Africa and Asia. Guided by the Spirit who is bestowed by the Father and the Son, their successors continued their mission, which remains “in season” until the end of the ages. As long as she exists in this world, the Church must proclaim the Gospel of the coming of the Kingdom of God, the teaching of her Master and Lord and, above all, the Person of Jesus Christ.
The word “Gospel”, τò εύ αγγέλιον, was already being used in the early days of the Church, oftentimes employed by St. Paul to indicate the entire new economy of salvation (cf. 1 Thess 1:5ff; Gal 1:6-9ff) and the preaching of the Gospel, divinely entrusted to him (cf. 1 Thess 2:4)and carried out “in the face of great opposition” (1 Thess 2:2). The term “Gospel”, in addition to citations found in St. Mark (cf. Mk 1:14, 15: 8:35; 10:29; 13: 10; 14:9; 16:15), is oftentimes used by St. Matthew the Evangelist to designate “the Gospel of the Kingdom” (Mt 9:35; 24:14; cf. 26:13). St. Paul also uses the expression “to evangelize” (εύ αγγελίσασθαι, cf. 2 Cor 10:16), a term found as well in the Acts of the Apostles (cf. Acts 8:4, 12, 25, 35, 40) and one which received greater development throughout the Church’s history.
In recent times, the term “evangelization” refers to every aspect of the Church’s activity. The Apostolic ExhortationEvangelii nuntiandi, promulgated on 8 December 1975, states that evangelization includes preaching, catechesis, liturgy, the sacramental life, popular piety and the witness of a Christian life (cf. Evangelii nuntiandi 17, 21, 48ff). In this Apostolic Exhortation, the Servant of God, Pope Paul VI set forth the results of the III Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, held from 27 September to 26 October 1974, to treat the topic of Evangelization in the Modern World. In succeeding decades, this document provided a notable impetus to the Church’s evangelizing activity, which, in turn, was accompanied by authentic human promotion (cf. Evangelii nuntiandi, 29, 38, 70).
In the wider context of evangelization, particular attention is dedicated to the proclamation of the Good News to persons and peoples who, until now, have not known the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This missio ad gentes has characterized the ongoing activity of the Church, which includes some privileged moments in her history, for example the missionary endeavours on the American continent, and, subsequently, those in Africa, Asia and Oceania. In the Decree Ad gentes, the Second Vatican Council emphasized the missionary nature of the entire Church. In accordance with the mandate of her founder, Jesus Christ, Christians not only are to provide the support of their prayers and material resources to missionaries, namely those who proclaim the Gospel to non-Christians, but are themselves called to contribute to spreading the Kingdom of God in the world, each according to his proper vocations and means. This task has a particular urgency in the present phase of globalization in which, for various reasons, many people who have never known Jesus Christ immigrate to countries of ancient Christian tradition and, thereby, come in contact with Christians, who are witnesses of the Risen Lord, ever-present in his Church, especially in his Word and sacraments.
Since its institution over 45 years ago, the Synod of Bishops has treated the topic of missio ad gentes in various synodal assemblies. On these occasions, the bishops considered, on the one hand, the missionary nature of the entire Church and, on the other, the teachings of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council which, in the conciliar decree Ad gentes, specifically attributed to the Synod of Bishops a missionary character: “Since the charge of proclaiming the Gospel in the whole world falls primarily on the body of bishops, the synod of bishops or that ‘stable Council of bishops for the entire Church,’ among the affairs of general concern, should give special consideration to missionary activity, which is the greatest and holiest task of the Church” (Ad gentes, 29).
In recent decades much has been said about the urgency of the new evangelization. Considering that evangelization is characteristic of the Church’s ordinary activity and taking into consideration that the proclamation of theGospel Ad gentes requires the formation of the local community and the particular Churches in missionary countries of the first evangelization, the new evangelization is primarily addressed to those who have drifted from the Church in traditionally Christian countries. Unfortunately, this phenomenon exists in varying degrees even in some countries where the Good News was proclaimed in recent centuries, but today has not been sufficiently accepted to result in the Christian transformation of persons, families and societies. Though these situations were duly treated in the Special Assemblies of the Synod of Bishops of a continental and regional character, which were celebrated in preparation for the Jubilee of the Year 2000, the subject still remains a great challenge for the entire Church. For this reason, His Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI, after consulting his brothers in the episcopate, decided to convoke the XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops from 7 to 28 October 2012 to discuss the topic:The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith. Continuing the reflection which has taken place thus far on the subject, the aim of the approaching synodal assembly will be to examine the present situation in the particular Churches and to trace, in communion with the Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI, the Bishop of Rome and Universal Pastor of the Church, the new methods and means for transmitting the Good News to people in our world today with a renewed enthusiasm proper to the saints, who were joyous witnesses of the Lord Jesus Christ “who is and who was and who is to come” (Rev 4:8). It is a matter of drawing out a challenge much like the scribe who became the disciple of the heavenly kingdom, was able to bring forth things new and old from the precious treasury of Tradition (cf. Mt 13:52).
These Lineamenta, drawn up with the assistance of the Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, are an important stage in preparation for this synod assembly. At the end of each chapter some questions appear which are aimed at generating discussion at every level of the Church. With this in mind, these Lineamenta are being sent to the synods of bishops of the Eastern Catholic Churches sui iuris, the episcopal conferences, the dicasteries of the Roman Curia and the Union of Superiors General, with whom the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops maintains official contacts. These bodies are to encourage discussion on this document in their respective areas of competence: dioceses, pastoral areas of jurisdiction, parishes, congregations, associations, movements, etc. The episcopal conferences, synods of bishops and the previously mentioned bodies will then summarize the observations and submit a report to the General Secretariat no later than 1 November 2011, the Solemnity of All Saints. With the assistance of the Ordinary Council, these responses will then be attentively analyzed and integrated into the Instrumentum laboris, the work-document for the synodal assembly.
While expressing in anticipation my gratitude for this collaborative effort, which represents a valuable exchange of gifts, concerns and pastoral solicitude, I entrust every aspect of the XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops to the maternal protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Star of the New Evangelization. Through her intercession may the Church obtain the grace to renew herself in the Holy Spirit so she can, with renewed zeal, put into practice in our times the commandment of the Risen Lord: “Go into all the world and preach the Gospel to the whole creation” (Mk 16:15).
Nikola ETEROVIĆ Titular Archbishop of Cibale
2 February 2011
Feast of the Presentation of the Lord
“I have been found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me.” (Rom 10:20)
The Urgency of a New Evangelization
1. At the conclusion of the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, Pope Benedict XVI clearly placed the topic of the new evangelization at the top of the Church’s agenda. “During the work of the Synod what was often underlined was the need to offer the Gospel anew to people who do not know it very well or who have even moved away from the Church. What was often evoked was the need for a new evangelization for the Middle East as well. This was quite a widespread theme, especially in the countries where Christianity has ancient roots. The recent creation of the Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization also responds to this profound need. For this reason, after having consulted the episcopacy of the whole world and after having listened to the Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, I have decided to dedicate the next Ordinary General Assembly, in 2012, to the following theme: “Nova evangelizatio ad christianam fidem tradendam – The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith.”
The Holy Father noted that his decision to assign the topic of the new evangelization to the next synodal assembly is part of a unified plan which includes the recent establishment of an ad hocdicastery in the Roman Curia and the publication of the Post-Synodal Apostolic ExhortationVerbum Domini. This plan arose from the Church’s commitment to renew her evangelizing activity, which was a major characteristic of the Magisterium and apostolic ministry of both PopePaul VI and Pope John Paul II. Ever since the Second Vatican Council, the new evangelization has increasingly presented itself as an appropriate, timely tool in addressing the challenges of a rapidly-changing world, and the way to respond to God’s generosity in our being gathered together by the Holy Spirit to experience God as the Father of us all and to bear witness and proclaim to all the Good News -the Gospel- of Jesus Christ.
The Duty to Evangelize
2. In proclaiming and transmitting the faith, the Church imitates God who communicates himself through the gift of his Son to humanity, who lives in Trinitarian communion and who pours out the Holy Spirit so as to carry on a dialogue with humanity. So that evangelization might mirror this divine communication, the Church must allow herself to be formed by the Spirit and make herself configured to Christ crucified, who reveals to the world the features of God’s love and communion. In this way, the Church will rediscover her vocation as Ecclesia mater, who begets children for the Lord by transmitting the faith to them and teaching them the love which generates and nourishes her children.
The centre of proclamation is Jesus Christ, who is believed and to whom a person bears witness. Transmitting the faith essentially means to transmit the Scriptures, primarily the Gospel, which give a person the opportunity of knowing Jesus, the Lord.
Pope Paul VI, in reemphasizing for the faithful the primacy of evangelization, stated: “It would be useful if every Christian and every evangelizer were to pray about the following thought: through God’s mercy, people can gain salvation in other ways besides our preaching the Gospel to them; but as for us, can we gain salvation, if through negligence, fear, shame – what St. Paul called ‘shrinking from the Gospel’ – or as a result of false ideas, we fail to preach it?” This question from the conclusion of Evangelii nuntiandi could serve as an exegesis of the opening quote from St. Paul. It also allows us to go immediately to the heart of the subject-at-hand, namely, the absolute centrality of the task of evangelization for the Church today. A reassessment of our experiences and attitudes concerning evangelization, not simply at the practical level, will lead to an improvement in our practice and approach to proclamation. On a deeper level, this process will allow us to ascertain the calibre of our faith, to determine our sense of “feeling” and “being” Christians and disciples of Jesus Christ, who are sent forth to proclaim him to the world, and of our being witnesses filled with the Holy Spirit (cf. Lk 24:48ff; Acts 1:8) and called to make disciples of all nations (cf. Mt 28:19ff).
The words of the disciples on the road to Emmaus (cf. Lk 24:13-35) illustrate that proclaiming Christ is open to failure; their words were incapable of transmitting life. In recounting their frustration and loss of hope, the two disciples proclaimed someone who was dead (cf. Lk 24:21-24). For the Church in every age, their words speak of the possibility of a proclamation which, instead of giving life, keeps both those who proclaim and those who hear bound in the death of the Christ proclaimed. The transmission of the faith is never an individual, isolated undertaking, but a communal, ecclesial event. It must not consider responses as a matter of researching an effective plan of communication and even less analytically concentrating on the hearers, for example, the young. Instead, these responses must be done as something which concerns the one called to perform this spiritual work. It must become what the Church is by her nature. In this way, the matter is placed in context and treated correctly and not extrinsically, namely, by placing at the centre of discussion the entire Church in all she is and all she does. Perhaps in this way the problem of unfruitfulness in evangelization and catechesis today can be seen as an ecclesiological problem which concerns the Church’s capacity, more or less, of becoming a real community, a true fraternity and a living body, and not a mechanical thing or enterprise.
“The pilgrim Church is missionary by her very nature.” This statement from the Second Vatican Council summarizes the Church’s Tradition in a simple and complete way. The Church is missionary, because she finds her origin in the mission of Jesus Christ and the mission of the Holy Spirit, according to the plan of God the Father. Furthermore, the Church is missionary, because she returns and relives her beginnings by proclaiming and witnessing to this revelation of God and by gathering together the scattered People of God, so that in this way she might fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah which the Church Fathers applied to her: “Spread your tent, extend the curtain of your dwelling without saving, lengthen the cord, strengthen your poles, so that you might be widened to the right and to the left and your descendants will possess nations, will populate once deserted cities” (Is 54:2, 3).
The words of St. Paul the Apostle, “For if I preach the Gospel, that gives me no ground for boasting. For necessity is laid upon me. Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel!” (1 Cor 9:16) can refer and be applied to the Church as a whole. Pope Paul VI stated: “…evangelizing all people constitutes the essential mission of the Church. This task and mission are particularly urgent because of the expansive, penetrating changes in present-day society. In fact, evangelizing is the grace and vocation proper to the Church; her utmost identity. She exists in order to evangelize…”
In this dual missionary and evangelizing dynamic, the Church not only exercises her active role as proclaimer but also her reflective role as hearer and disciple. As an evangelizer, the Church begins by evangelizing herself. The Church knows herself to be the visible fruit of this uninterrupted work of evangelization, which the Spirit guides throughout history, so that the saved might bear witness to the living and divine memory of Jesus Christ. Today, we can be all the more certain of this fact, because the Church’s history is replete with extraordinary examples of courage, dedication, boldness, intuition and reason; and inspiring moments which have been set down in written texts, prayers, models and teaching methods, spiritual programmes, programmes of initiation in the faith and educational works and institutions.
Evangelization and Discernment
3. In addition to these sentiments of gratitude and contemplation concerning the Mirabilia Dei, the Church has another important reason to be cognizant of the aspects of hearing and discipleship, which are inherent in the work of evangelization. Beyond being the agent of evangelization, the Church is the fruit of her own evangelizing activity, because she is certain that the entire process is not in her hands but in the hands of God, whose Spirit guides her in the course of history. St. Paul comes to this realization in the text cited at the beginning of this Introduction. The Church knows that the Holy Spirit guides her evangelizing activity, revealing the times, places and instruments required in her work of proclaiming the Gospel. In times of great change, as in the early days of the Church, St. Paul, knew all-too-well God’s primary role in evangelization, not only theoretically but practically in its planning and realization, and was able to document the reasons for this primacy by turning to the Scriptures, especially the Prophets.
St. Paul the Apostle acknowledges the primary role of the action of the Spirit at a particularly intense and meaningful time for the nascent Church. In fact, some believers felt that other roads were to be taken; others among the first Christians displayed an uncertainty in facing and making some basic choices. The process of evangelization became a process of discernment. Proclamation first requires moments of listening, understanding and interpretation.
In many ways, our times are similar to those in which St. Paul lived. As Christians, we too find ourselves immersed in a period of significant historical and cultural change which we will have greater opportunity to treat later in these pages. Evangelical activity demands that we undertake a similar, corresponding and timely activity of discernment. The Second Vatican Council’s description of the state-of-affairs some 40 years ago can also be applied to the present day: “Today, the human race is involved in a new stage of history. Profound and rapid changes are spreading by degrees around the whole world.” Since the Council, these changes have steadily increased over the years and, unlike in those times, have brought with them not only hopes and dreams of utopia but also fear and skepticism. The initial decade of this new century / millennium, has witnessed developments which have indelibly marked the history of humanity and dramatically affected it in many ways.
We are living in a particularly significant, historic moment of change, of tension and of a loss of equilibrium and points of reference. These times are increasingly forcing us to live immersed in the present and in passing things which make it increasingly difficult for us to listen, to transmit an appreciation for the past and to share values on which to build the future for new generations. In this context, the Christian presence and the work of the Church’s institutions are not easily perceived and, at times, are even looked upon with great reservation. In the last decades, repeated criticism has been levelled at the Church, Christians and the God we proclaim. Consequently, evangelization is facing new challenges which are putting accepted practices in question and are weakening customary, well-established ways of doing things. In a word, the situation is requiring the Church to consider, in an entirely new way, how she proclaims and transmits the faith. The Church, nevertheless, is not approaching these challenges totally unprepared. She has at her disposal the fruits of former assemblies of the Synod of Bishops which were specifically dedicated to the topic of the proclamation and transmission of the faith, in particular, the Apostolic Exhortations Evangelii nuntiandi and Catechesi tradendae. In the two related synodal assemblies, the Church lived a significant moment of self-evaluation and revitalization of her mandate to evangelize.
Evangelization in Today’s World, Beginning with Its Challenges
4. The citation from St. Paul, which is like a refrain in this Introduction, helps us understand the scope and meaning of the next Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, now in preparation. After an extended period of time, which has been characterized by a variety of changes and revolutionary events, the Church would benefit from an opportunity to listen and engage in discussion, so as to ensure a high level of quality in the discernment required in the evangelizing activity which we, as a Church, are called to undertake. The next Ordinary General Assembly is intended to be a privileged moment and significant phase in this process of discernment. From the time of the synodal assemblies on evangelization and catechesis, cultures and whole societies have undergone significant and sometimes unforeseen changes, whose effects – as in the case of the financial-economic crisis – are still being visibly seen and actively felt in our respective local situations. Having been directly affected by the changes, the Church had problems to be considered, phenomena to be understood, practices to be rectified and programmes and real-life situations to be imbued in a new way with the Gospel of hope. Today, a similar set of circumstances is compelling us, in a totally natural way, to embark on this road which will lead to the next synodal assembly. After listening attentively and exchanging information, we will all leave totally enriched and ready to determine the initiatives God is taking, through his Spirit, to manifest himself and to allow himself to be found by humanity, as set forth in the text from the prophet Isaiah (cf. Is 40:3; 57:14; 62:10).
Discernment requires distinguishing the subjects and themes which need our attention, listening and common discussion. To sustain the Church’s evangelizing activity and make any required changes, our exercise of discernment must place the essential aspects of this ecclesial task at the centre of our consideration, namely, the beginnings, growth and progress of the “new evangelization” within our Churches; the manner in which the Church assumes and fulfils her responsibility and task of transmitting the faith today; and the actual means at the Church’s disposal to be utilized, in today’s world, to generate the faith (Christian initiation, education) and to meet today’s challenges. These aspects provide the structure to this document, which is intended to initiate a process of listening and understanding and to broaden the horizons of the discernment already taking place in our Churches. In this way, discernment will become more attuned and even more “catholic” and “universal”.
By its very nature, the discernment under consideration is always conditioned by history and a focussed intent. In other words, the process begins with elements taken from real-life and formulates a response to a specific situation. Generally speaking, our local Churches, while sharing the same Catholic culture, have, in recent decades, experienced events and stages in the process of discernment which are unique and determined by their surroundings and historical circumstances.
1. What past experiences in this regard do you feel should be shared with other local Churches?
2. In the process of discerning events in history, what should be shared with the universal Church, so that, by mutually listening to these happenings, the universal Church can recognize where the Spirit is leading her in the work of evangelization?
3. By now, the subject of the “new evangelization” is well-known in our local Churches. How has it been undertaken and delineated? What form has it taken?
4. What specific pastoral activity has benefited by undertaking the “new evangelization”? Give an account of any changes in these pastoral programmes or any significant renewal of activity? On the other hand, describe any obstacles or tensions which may have developed in this regard?
“…how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without a preacher?” (Rom 10:14)
“New Evangelization”: The Meaning of a Definition
5. Though well-known and undoubtedly a part of the Church’s many projects, the “new evangelization” remains a relatively new expression and concept in ecclesial and pastoral circles. Consequently, its meaning is not always clear and precise. Initially introduced by Pope John Paul II during his apostolic visit to Poland, without any specific emphasis or idea of its future role, the “new evangelization” was used again and given new life in the Holy Father’s Magisterium to the Churches in Latin America. Pope John Paul II used the term to reawaken and elicit renewed efforts in a new missionary and evangelizing undertaking on the continent. In this regard, he said to the bishops in Latin America: “The commemoration of this half millennium of evangelization will have full significance if, as bishops, with your priests and faithful, you accept it as your commitment; a commitment not of re-evangelization, but rather of a new evangelization; new in its ardour, methods and expression.” Consequently, the new evangelization is not a matter of redoing something which has been inadequately done or has not achieved its purpose, as if the new activity were an implicit judgment on the failure of the first evangelization. Nor is the new evangelization taking up the first evangelization again, or simply repeating the past. Instead, it is the courage to forge new paths in responding to the changing circumstances and conditions facing the Church in her call to proclaim and live the Gospel today. In the past, the Latin American continent was facing new challenges (the spread of a communist ideology, the appearance of the sects). The new evangelization emerged after a process of discernment undertaken by the Church in Latin America to consider and evaluate the overall situation.
In this sense, Pope John Paul II again took up the expression in his Magisterium and proposed it to the universal Church. “Today the Church must face other challenges and push forward to new frontiers, both in the initial mission ad gentes and in the new evangelization of those peoples who have already heard Christ proclaimed. Today all Christians, the particular Churches and the universal Church, are called to have the same courage that inspired the missionaries of the past, and the same readiness to listen to the voice of the Spirit.” The new evangelization is primarily a spiritual activity capable of recapturing in our times the courage and forcefulness of the first Christians and the first missionaries. Consequently, it requires, first of all, a process of discerning the vitality of Christianity and a reconsideration of its accomplishments and the difficulties it has encountered. At a later date, Pope John Paul II clarified his idea of a new evangelization: “The Church today ought to take a giant step forward in her evangelization effort, and enter into a new stage of history in her missionary dynamism. In a world where the lessening of distance makes the world increasingly smaller, the Church community ought to strengthen the bonds among its members, exchange vital energies and means, and commit itself as a group to a unique and common mission of proclaiming and living the Gospel. ‘So-called younger Churches have need of the strength of the older Churches and the older ones need the witness and impulse of the younger, so that individual Churches receive the riches of other Churches'”.
Presently, in reviewing the dynamics of the “new evangelization”, the expression can now be applied to the Church’s renewed efforts to meet the challenges which today’s society and cultures, in view of the significant changes taking place, are posing to the Christian faith, its proclamation and its witness. In facing these challenges, the Church does not give up or retreat into herself; instead, she undertakes a project to revitalize herself. She makes the Person of Jesus Christ and a personal encounter with him central to her thinking, knowing that he will give his Spirit and provide the force to announce and proclaim the Gospel in new ways which can speak to today’s cultures.
Understood in this manner, the idea of a “new evangelization” was again taken up and proposed in the continental synodal assemblies, celebrated in preparation for the Jubilee of the Year 2000. At that time, it became an accepted expression in the pastoral and ecclesial thought of the local Churches. A “new evangelization” is synonymous with renewed spiritual efforts in the life of faith within the local Churches, starting with a process to discern the changes in various cultural and social settings and their impact on Christian life, to reread the memory of faith and to undertake new responsibilities and generate new energies to joyously and convincingly proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In this regard, the words of Pope John Paul II to the Church in Europe are particularly indicative and concise: “…an urgent need [has arisen] for a ‘new evangelization’, in the awareness that ‘Europe today must not simply appeal to its former Christian heritage: it needs to be able to decide about its future in conformity with the person and message of Jesus Christ’.”
Despite the fact that the expression is widely-known in the Church, it has failed to be accepted fully and totally in discussion within both the Church and the world of culture. Some are hesitant to use the term, thinking that it is a negative judgment on the Church’s past and a desire to remove certain pages from the recent history of local Churches. Others, especially among other Christian confessions, are suspicious that a “new evangelization” camouflages the Church’s intention to proselytize. Still others tend to think that the term might lead to a change in the Church’s attitude towards non-believers, turning them into participants in a debate and no longer partners in a dialogue which sees us as sharers in the same humanity in search of the truth about existence. Regarding this last concern, Pope Benedict XVI had the following to say during his Apostolic Visit to the Czech Republic: “Here I think naturally of the words which Jesus quoted from the Prophet Isaiah, namely that the Temple must be a house of prayer for all the nations (cf. Is 56: 7; Mk 11: 17). Jesus was thinking of the so-called ‘Courtyard of the Gentiles’ which he cleared of extraneous affairs so that it could be a free space for the Gentiles who wished to pray there to the one God, even if they could not take part in the mystery for whose service the inner part of the Temple was reserved. A place of prayer for all the peoples by this he was thinking of people who know God, so to speak, only from afar; who are dissatisfied with their own gods, rites and myths; who desire the Pure and the Great, even if God remains for them the ‘unknown God’ (cf. Acts 17: 23). They had to pray to the unknown God, yet in this way they were somehow in touch with the true God, albeit amid all kinds of obscurity. I think that today too the Church should open a sort of “Court of the Gentiles” in which people might in some way latch on to God, without knowing him and before gaining access to his mystery, at whose service the inner life of the Church stands. Today, in addition to interreligious dialogue, there should be a dialogue with those to whom religion is something foreign, to whom God is unknown and who nevertheless do not want to be left merely Godless, but rather to draw near to him, albeit as the Unknown.”
As believers, we must also show concern for persons who call themselves agnostic or atheists, who may have fears when we speak of a “new evangelization”, thinking that they are the primary objective of the Church’s missionary activity. Even they, however, must consider the question of God. The search for God gave birth to western monasticism, and, with it, western culture. The first step in evangelization is seeking to keep this search alive and maintaining dialogue, not only with those professing a religion, but also with those who consider religion non-essential in life.
The image of the “Courtyard of the Gentiles” serves as a further element in our thinking on the “new evangelization” by showing that the Christian must never forego a sense of boldness in proclaiming the Gospel and seeking every positive way to provide avenues for dialogue, where people’s deepest expectations and their thirst for God can be discussed. This boldness allows the question of God to be placed in context through one’s sharing of personal experiences in seeking God and recounting the gratuitous nature of the personal encounter with the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This will firstly require self-evaluation and purification, so as to recognize any traces of fear, weariness, confusion or a retreat into oneself resulting from cultural factors. This step must immediately be followed by renewed efforts and initiatives, relying on the grace of the Holy Spirit, at experiencing God as Father, which, in turn, can then be communicated to others in virtue of our personally encountering Christ. This is not a matter of successive stages as much as spiritual modes of the Christian life. St. Paul the Apostle spoke of them, when he described the experience of faith as a liberation “from the dominion of darkness” and an entrance into “the Kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins” (Col 1: 13, 14; cf. also Rom 12: 1,2). At the same time, this boldness is not something absolutely new or totally unheard of in Christianity, since indications of this boldness are already present in patristic literature.
The Sectors Calling for the New Evangelization
6. The new evangelization is a frame-of-mind, a courageous manner of acting and Christianity’s capacity to know how to read and interpret the new situations in human history which, in recent decades, have become the places to proclaim and witness to the Gospel. Delineated and treated on various occasions, these sectors concern society, cultures, economics, civic life and religion.
The first sector calling for the new evangelization is culture. In our times, we find ourselves in an era of a profound secularism which has led to a loss in the capacity to listen and understand the words of the Gospel as a living and life-giving message. This is particularly the case in the western world, where history and identity have been deeply affected by events, changes in society and ways of thinking. In our cultures, many view the secularizing trend, in a positive sense, as a liberation from the things of the past or as the way completely to separate any idea of the transcendent from the world and humanity. Although anti-Christian, anti-religious and anti-clerical references are sometimes heard today, secularism, in recent times, has not taken the form of a direct, outright denial of God, religion or Christianity. Instead, the secularizing movement has taken a more subtle tone in cultural forms which invade people’s everyday lives and foster a mentality in which God is completely or partially left out of life and human consciousness. In this way, secularism has entered the Christian life and ecclesial communities and has become not simply an external threat for believers but something to be faced each day in life in the various manifestations of the so-called culture of relativism. Furthermore, this tendency is having serious anthropological implications which put in question basic human experiences, for example, the relation between man and woman as well as the meaning of reproduction and death itself.
Traces of a secularized way of looking at life can be seen in the daily lives of many Christians, who are oftentimes influenced, if not completely conditioned, by the culture of images with its models and opposing forces. Temptations to superficiality and self-centredness, arising from a predominating hedonistic and consumer-oriented mentality, are not easily overcome. The “death of God” announced decades ago by so many intellectuals has given way to an unproductive cult of the individual. A real possibility exists that the fundamental elements of explaining the faith might be lost, which will then lead to not only spiritual atrophism and emptiness of heart, but also, on the other extreme, substitute forms of religious affiliation and a vague sense of the spiritual. In such situations, the new evangelization is seen as the needed impetus for weary and worn-out communities to help them rediscover the joy of the Christian experience, to find again “the love you had at first” which was lost (Rev 2:4) and to emphasize the true meaning of freedom in the search for truth.
At the same time, some regions of the world are showing signs of a promising religious reawakening. These many positive expectations, resulting from a rediscovery of God and the sacred in various religions, are, however, being overshadowed by the phenomenon of fundamentalism which oftentimes manipulates religion to justify violence and even terrorism, a serious abuse of religion. “We cannot kill in God’s name!” Furthermore, the proliferation of the sects continues to be an ongoing challenge.
Having briefly treated the cultural sector, we now turn our attention to the social sector, where the great phenomenon of migration is increasingly forcing people to leave their countries of origin for more urban settings, thereby changing the ethnic make-up of our cities, our nations and our continents. Consequently, our societies are experiencing an unprecedented encounter and mixing of cultures, resulting in forms of corruption, the erosion of the fundamental references to life, the undermining of the values for which we exert ourselves and the deterioration of the very human ties we use to identify ourselves and give meaning to our lives. In the process, culture becomes extremely fluid and “fluctuating”, increasingly leaving little space for the great traditions of life, including those of religion, and their task of objectively contributing to a sense of history and the identity of individuals. Associated with this social sector is the so-called phenomenon of globalization which is not easily understood, thereby requiring Christians to intensify their efforts at discernment. If we consider only its aspects of economy and production, globalization is a negative phenomenon. However, in a positive sense, globalization can be viewed as an occasion for growth, in which humanity can learn to develop new forms of solidarity and new ways to share the development of everything for the greater good of all. In such a situation, the new evangelization can provide the opportunity no longer to perceive the Church’s mission as a north-south or west-east dynamic but one which transcends the geographic confines of past missionary activity. Today, all five continents are fields of missionary activity. We must also seek to understand the sectors and places in life where faith is absent, not simply as a result of drifting from the faith but from never having encountered it. Transcending the geographic confines of former missionary activity means having the capacity to raise the question of God at every moment in the encounters created by the mixing and rebuilding of the fabric of society, a phenomenon which is taking place in almost every local setting.
This extensive mixing of cultures is the backdrop to our third great sector which has an increasingly determined effect on the lives of individuals and the collective conscience, namely, the means of social communications, which, while today providing great possibilities for the Church, also represents one of her greatest challenges. Although these means of social communications, in their initial stages, were limited to the industrialized world, they are now able to influence vast portions of developing countries. Today, no place in the world is beyond reach and, consequently, unaffected by the media and digital culture, which is fast becoming the “forum” of public life and social interaction. Undoubtedly, the diffusion of this culture has its benefits, including major access to information; greater opportunities for knowledge, exchange and new forms of solidarity; and the capacity to build an increasingly “world culture” which leads to a common patrimony of values and a greater development of thought and human expression. These potentialities, however, cannot hide the inherent risks when this kind of culture is taken to an extreme, including a selfish concentration on oneself and personal needs; an overemphasis on the emotive aspects of relations and social bonds; the loss of the objective values of experience, reflection and thought, which are reduced in many cases, to ways of reconfirming one’s individualistic feelings; the progressive alienation of the moral and social dimensions of life which makes others a mirror for self or simply a spectator to one’s actions; and, finally, the formation of a culture centred on passing novelties, the present moment and outward appearances, indeed a society which is incapable of remembering the past and with no sense of the future. In this sector, the new evangelization means that Christians need to show boldness in these “new aeropaghi“, where they live everyday, and find the means and approaches to ensure that the Church’s patrimony in education and knowledge, safeguarded by the Christian tradition, has a part to play in these ultra-modern places.
A fourth sector in which changes call for the Church’s evangelizing activity, is the economy. On many occasions, the Magisterium of many Popes has denounced the growing disproportion in the northern and southern hemispheres in access to resources and their distribution as well as the damage to creation. The persistent economic crisis today illustrates the problem of using material forces to establish rules in a global market intended to ensure greater justice in relations among peoples. Although the communications media is giving less coverage to these problems, beginning with the plight of the poor, the Church needs to become more aware of these concerns and take concrete measures to address them.
The fifth sector is scientific and technological research. We are living at a moment when people still marvel at the wonders resulting from continual advances in scientific and technological research. All of us experience the benefits of this progress in our daily lives, benefits on which we are becoming increasingly dependent. As a result, science and technology are in danger of becoming today’s new idols. In a digitalized and globalized world, science can easily be considered a new religion, to which we turn with questions concerning truth and meaning, even though we know that the responses provided are only partial and not totally satisfying. New forms of “gnosis” are emerging where technology itself becomes a kind of philosophy in which knowledge and meaning are derived from an unreal structuring of life. These new cults, increasing each day, ultimately end up by turning religious practice into a clinical form of seeking prosperity and instant gratification.
Finally, the sixth sector is civic and political life. The changes which have taken place since the Second Vatican Council can rightly be called colossal. The fall of Communism, which ended the division of the western world into two blocks, has helped foster religious freedom and has provided the opportunity for age-old Churches to re-establish themselves. New economic, political and religious forces are emerging in global politics from places like Asia and the Islamic world. This has created an unprecedented yet totally unknown situation which is rich in potential but also fraught with risks and new temptations of dominion and power. In this sector, the Gospel must be transmitted in the following endeavours: the duty to seek peace; the development and liberation of peoples; improvement in forms of world and national governments; the construction of possible forms of listening, living together, dialogue and collaboration by various cultures and religions; the safeguarding of the rights of persons, entire peoples and, above all, minorities; support for the most vulnerable in society; and the stewardship of creation and the commitment to the future of our planet.
Christians Facing These New Situations
7. An initial reaction to these changes can easily be confusion and fear, because these moments of transition lead us to question our identity and the very foundations of our faith. At such times, however, the reasonable thing would be to follow the often-voiced appeal of Pope Benedict XVI to engage in a critical discernment of the situation and reread the present moment in light of the Christian gift of hope. Relearning the meaning of hope leads Christians to discover what they can offer in their world of encounters, experiences and dialoguing with others, what they can share in the process and how they can better express this hope which leads to perseverance. The new sectors which call us into dialogue require turning a critical eye towards our manner of life, our thinking, our values and our means of communication. At the same time, the occasion must also serve as a self-evaluation of Christianity today, which must repeatedly learn to understand itself, beginning from its roots.
The foregoing activity gives the specific character and force to the new evangelization, which must consider these sectors of life, observe what is happening and, knowing how to overcome an initial reaction of defence and fear, objectively gather the signs of what might be new along with inherent challenges and weak points. A “new evangelization” means, then, to work in our local Churches to devise a plan for evaluating the previously mentioned phenomena in such a manner as to transmit the Gospel of hope in a practical way. In the process, the Church builds herself up by accepting these challenges and becoming more and more the artisan of the civilization of love.
A “new evangelization” also means to have the boldness to raise the question of God in the context of these problems, thereby fulfilling the specific character of the Church’s mission and showing how the Christian prospective enlightens, in an unprecedented way, the great problems of history. The new evangelization calls us to engage in dialogue with these sectors, not remaining confined to our communities and our institutions, but accepting the challenge to take part in these phenomena so as to speak and bear witness in these sectors, from the inside. This is the form of Christian martyria in today’s world, engaging in dialogue even with the recent forms of a militant atheism or an extreme secularism, whose purpose is to eliminate the subject of God from human life.
In this context, a “new evangelization” means that the Church must convincingly sustain her efforts at uniting all Christians in a common witness to the world of the prophetic and transforming power of the Gospel message. Justice, peace, living with others and the stewardship of creation have characterized ecumenism over the decades. Together, Christians can also offer them to the world as places where the question of God in people’s lives can be addressed. These places, in fact, acquire their true significance only in light of and on the basis of the word of love spoken to us in his Son, Jesus Christ.
A “New Evangelization” and Spirituality
8. The effort to raise the question of God in the context of the problems of humanity today again brings us to the ideas of religious need and spirituality, which, starting with the younger generations, emerge with renewed vigour. The changes in the sectors which we have previously treated inevitably affect the way people speak about and practice their sense of religion. The Catholic Church herself is affected by this phenomenon, which provides resources and occasions for the evangelization envisioned decades ago. International meetings for youth, pilgrimages to shrines of ancient and recent origin and the flowering of movements and ecclesial associations are clear signs of a continuing religious sense. In this context, the “new evangelization” requires that the Church know how to discern the signs of the Spirit at work, addressing and educating people to the Spirit’s manifestations, in light of a mature, informed faith “until attaining the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ” (Eph 4:13). In addition to these recently formed groups, which are a promising fruit of the Holy Spirit, the consecrated life, in its traditional and new forms, also has a great role to play in the new evangelization, particularly considering that, in the two-thousand years of Christianity, all the great movements in evangelization have been associated with forms arising from the radical nature of the Gospel.
Also included in this context are encounters and dialogue with the great religious traditions, particularly those of the East, which the Church has undertaken in recent decades and continues to intensify. This dialogue is a promising opportunity to learn and compare how the religious question is seen in other religions, thus allowing Catholicism to understand more deeply the ways with which the Christian faith can listen and respond to each person’s religious sense.
New Ways of “Being Church”
9. These new circumstances in the Church’s mission make us realize that, in the end, the expression “new evangelization” requires finding new approaches to evangelization so as “to be Church” in today’s ever-changing social and cultural situations. The traditional, long-accepted model of a division of the world into “Christian countries” and “mission lands”, despite its conceptual clarity, is now seen as limited, overly simple and no longer applicable to the present situation, and thus, unable to be used as a reference in building today’s Christian communities. Instead, Christian life and practice must guide this reflection, in a deliberative process of devising new models of “being Church”, which avoids the dangers of sectarianism and a “civic religion”, and allows the Church, in today’s post-ideological era, to continue to maintain her identity as missionary. In other words, in the variety of her models, the Church must not fail to be seen as a “domestic Church” and “The People of God”. Even in places where she might be in the minority or subject to discrimination, the Church must not lose her capacity of remaining close to people in their daily lives so as to announce in that very place the life-giving message of the Gospel. According to Pope John Paul II, the “new evangelization” means to remake the Christian fabric of human society and the fabric of Christian communities themselves and to assist the Church to continue to be present “in the midst of the homes of her sons and daughters” so as to animate their lives and guide them to the Kingdom to come.
In this work of discernment, the Eastern Catholic Churches can be of great assistance as well as Christian communities which, in their recent past, have lived or are still living an experience of hiding, persecution, emarginalization or ethnic, ideological or religious intolerance. Their testimony of faith, perseverance, fortitude, unwavering hope and the intuition of some of their pastoral practices are gifts to be shared with Christian communities which, looking to a glorious past, are now experiencing a trying and difficult moment. For Churches little accustomed to living their faith in situations where they are a minority, to listen to the experiences of the Christian communities mentioned above is surely a gift which instills the indispensable trust required in the efforts for the new evangelization.
The time has also come for a new evangelization in the West, where many of those baptized lead totally un-Christian lives and more and more persons maintain some links to the faith but have little or a poor knowledge of it. Oftentimes, the faith is presented in caricature or publically treated by certain cultures with indifference, if not open hostility. Now is the time for a new evangelization in the West. “Whole countries and nations where religion and the Christian life were formerly flourishing and capable of fostering a viable and working community of faith, are now put to a hard test, and in some cases, are even undergoing a radical transformation, as a result of a constant spreading of an indifference to religion, of secularism and of atheism. This particularly concerns countries and nations of the so-called First World, in which economic well-being and consumerism, even if coexistent with a tragic situation of poverty and misery, inspires and sustains a life lived ‘as if God did not exist.'”
Christian communities ought to know how to respond with responsibility and courage to this renewal required of the Church, because of cultural and social changes. They ought to learn how to devise and implement the long process of moving to newer models, while maintaining the mandate to evangelize as a reference-point.
The First Evangelization, Pastoral Solicitude and the New Evangelization
10. The missionary mandate which concludes the Gospel (Mk 16:15ff; Mt 28:19ff; Lk 24:48ff; Acts1:8) is far from being fully carried out; it has simply entered a new phase. Pope John Paul II stated that “the boundaries between pastoral care of the faithful, new evangelization and specific missionary activity are not clearly definable, and it is unthinkable to create barriers between them or to put them into watertight compartments. […] The Churches in traditionally Christian countries, for example, involved as they are in the challenging task of new evangelization, are coming to understand more clearly that they cannot be missionaries to non-Christians in other countries and continents, unless they are seriously concerned about the non-Christians at home. Hence missionary activity ad intra is a credible sign and a stimulus for missionary activity ad extra, and vice versa.” Being Christian and “being Church” means being missionary; one is or is not. Loving one’s faith implies bearing witness to it, bringing it to others and allowing others to participate in it. The lack of missionary zeal is a lack of zeal for the faith. On the contrary, faith is made stronger by transmitting it. The Pope’s words on the new evangelization can be translated into a rather direct and crucial question: “Are we interested in transmitting the faith and bringing non-Christians to the faith?” “Are we truly missionary at heart?”
The new evangelization is the name given to the Church’s project of undertaking anew her fundamental mission, her identity and reason for existence. Consequently, it is not limited to delineated, well-defined regions only, but is a way to explain and put into practice the apostolic legacy in and for our times. In the project of the new evangelization, the Church desires to bring her unique message into today’s world and the present discussion, namely, to proclaim the Kingdom of God, begun in Christ Jesus. No part of the Church is exempt from this project. The Christian Churches of ancient origin must deal with the problem of the many who have abandoned the practice of the faith; the younger Churches, through the process of inculturation, must continually take measures allowing them to bring the Gospel to everyday life, a process which not only purifies and elevates culture, but, above all, opens culture to the newness of the Gospel. Generally speaking, every Christian community must rededicate itself to its programme of pastoral care which seems to become more difficult and in danger of falling into a routine, and thus little able to communicate its original aims and goals.
A new evangelization is synonymous with mission, requiring the capacity to set out anew, go beyond boundaries and broaden horizons. The new evangelization is the opposite of self-sufficiency, a withdrawal into oneself, a status quo mentality and an idea that pastoral programmes are simply to proceed as they did in the past. Today, a “business as usual” attitude can no longer be the case. Some local Churches, already engaged in renewal, reconfirm the fact that now is the time for the Church to call upon every Christian community to evaluate their pastoral practice on the basis of the missionary character of their programmes and activities.
Our Christian communities are experiencing significant changes in the Church and society.
1. What are the principal characteristics of these changes in our local Churches?
2. How does the Church fulfil her missionary role of taking part in people’s everyday-lives, “in the midst of the homes of her sons and daughters”?
3. How has the new evangelization been able to revitalize and reanimate the first evangelization or the pastoral programmes already taking place? How has the new evangelization helped to overcome the weariness and toil arising in the everyday life of our local Churches?
4. What has been discerned from evaluating the present situation in the various local Churches from the vantage point of the new evangelization?
The world is undergoing significant changes which bring about new situations and challenges for Christianity. Six sectors, affected by change, have been treated: culture (secularization), society (the intermingling of peoples), mass media, economy, science and civic life. These sectors have deliberately been described in a general manner.
5. What have been the specific effects of change in the various local Churches?
6. How have these sectors interacted in the life of the local Churches? How have they affected their lives?
7. What questions and challenges have they posed? What responses have been made?
8. What have been the principal obstacles and the most challenging efforts to raise the question of God in today’s discussion? What have been the results?
Special attention is given to the religious sector.
9. What changes have taken place in people’s religious experiences?
10. What new aspects are emerging in spirituality and religious needs? Are new religious traditions coming about?
11. How have Christian communities been affected by the changes in the religious sector? What is the principal work? What new opportunities are present?
In the new evangelization, the Church is to be transformed in her thinking so she can continue to carry out her mission of proclamation within these new sectors.
12. Describe the ways the new evangelization has been enacted in the local Churches?
13. How has the boldness, characteristic of the new evangelization, been displayed? What has this boldness prompted in ecclesial and pastoral life?
14. What aspects of the Church’s life and activity need this boldness?
15. How have the local Churches undertaken and accomplished Pope John Paul II’s appeal for “a new evangelization; new in its ardour, in its methods and in its expressions”?
16. How has the celebration of the continental or regional synodal assemblies assisted Christian communities devise a project for a new evangelization?
“Go into all the world and preach the Gospel to the whole creation”(Mk 16:15).
A Personal Encounter and Communion with Christ, the Goal of Transmitting the Faith
11. The missionary mandate which the disciples received from the Lord (cf. Mk 16:15) makes an explicit reference to proclaiming and teaching the Gospel (“teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you” Mt 28:20). St. Paul the Apostle presents himself as an “apostle […] set apart for the Gospel of God” (Rom 1:1; 1 Cor 1:17). Therefore, the Church’s task consists in realizing theTraditio Evangelii, proclaiming and transmitting the Gospel, which is “the power of God for salvation to every one who has faith” (Rom 1:16) and which is ultimately identified with Jesus Christ (cf. 1 Cor 1:24). In referring to the Gospel, we must not think of it only as a book or a set of teachings. The Gospel is much more; it is a living and efficacious Word, which accomplishes what it says. It is not so much a system of articles of faith and moral precepts, much less a political programme, but a person: Jesus Christ, the definitive Word of God, who became man. The Gospel is the Gospel of Jesus Christ. However, not only does the Gospel have Jesus Christ as its content; but even more, through the Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ is also the promoter and the centre of its proclamation and transmission. Consequently, the goal of the transmission of the faith is the realization of a personal encounter with Jesus Christ, in the Spirit, thereby leading to an experiencing of his Father and our Father.
Transmitting the faith means to create in every place and time the conditions for this personal encounter of individuals with Jesus Christ. The faith-encounter with the person of Jesus Christ is a relationship with him, “remembering him” (in the Eucharist) and, through the grace of the Spirit, having in us the mind of Jesus Christ. Pope Benedict XVI stated: “Being Christian is not the result of an ethical choice or a lofty idea, but the encounter with an event, a person, which gives life a new horizon and a decisive direction. […] Since God has first loved us (cf. 1 Jn 4:10), love is now no longer a mere ‘command’; it is the response to the gift of love with which God draws near to us.” The Church realizes herself precisely from carrying out her task of proclaiming the Gospel and transmitting the Christian faith.
This personal encounter allows individuals to share in the Son’s relationship with his Father and to experience the power of the Spirit. The aim of transmitting the faith and the goal of evangelization is to bring us “through him [Christ] in one Spirit to the Father” (Eph 2:18). This is the newness of the Christian God. From this perspective, transmitting the faith in Christ means to create the conditions for a faith which is thought-out, celebrated, lived and prayed; in short, this means participating in the life of the Church. This way of transmitting the faith is very much grounded in Church Tradition. Reference to it is found in The Catechism of the Catholic Churchand itsCompendium, both of which take up the subject of the new evangelization so as to encourage, explain and repropose it.
The Church Transmits the Faith Which She Herself Lives
12. The transmission of the faith is a very complex, dynamic process which totally involves the faith of Christians and the life of the Church. What is not believed or lived cannot be transmitted. The sign of a well-founded, mature faith is the natural way we communicate it to others. Christ “called to him those whom he desired; and they came to him. And he appointed twelve, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach” (Mk 3:13,14). The Gospel can only be transmitted on the basis of “being” with Jesus and living with Jesus the experience of the Father, in the Spirit; and, in a corresponding way, of “feeling” compelled to proclaim and share what is lived as a good and something positive and beautiful.
The responsibility of announcing and proclaiming is not the work of a single person or a select few, but a gift given to every person who confidently responds to the call of faith. Nor is transmitting the faith a specialized work assigned to a group of people or specifically designated individuals, but an experience of every Christian and the entire Church. Through this work, the Church continually rediscovers her identity as a People united by the call of the Spirit, who brings us together from the countless areas of everyday living to experience Christ’s presence among us and, thereby, to discover God as Father. “The lay faithful, in virtue of their participation in the prophetic mission of Christ, are fully part of this work of the Church. Their responsibility, in particular, is to testify how the Christian faith constitutes the only fully valid response – consciously perceived and stated by all in varying degrees – to the problems and hopes that life poses to every person and society. This will be possible if the lay faithful will know how to overcome in themselves the separation of the Gospel from life, to again take up in their daily activities in family, work and society, an integrated approach to life that is fully brought about by the inspiration and strength of the Gospel.”
The Church’s fundamental activity of transmitting the faith is the foundation of the model and activity of Christian communities. Proclaiming and spreading the Gospel requires that the Church do everything possible to ensure that Christian communities are capable of intensely manifesting the basic elements of a life of faith, namely, charity, witness, proclamation, celebration, listening and sharing. Evangelization needs to be seen as the process through which the Church, moved by the Spirit, proclaims and spreads the Gospel in the whole world, in conformity with magisterial teaching which has been summarized in the following manner: “urged on by charity [evangelization] penetrates and transforms the entire temporal order, acquiring and renewing cultures, and is a witness among peoples of the new way of being and living, which is basic to the Christian identity. Evangelization openly proclaims the Gospel, through an initial proclamation which calls persons to conversion; then, through catechesis and the Sacraments of Initiation, it initiates in the faith and the Christian life not only those who are converted to Christ but also those who have returned to the path of following him, incorporating both into the Christian community. Likewise, evangelization continually nourishes in the faithful their gift of communion, through ongoing instruction in the faith (homilies and other forms of catechesis), through the sacraments and through works of charity, and always leads them to undertake the Church’s mission which sends all Christ’s disciples to announce the Gospel to the entire world through their words and deeds.”
The Word of God and Transmitting the Faith
13. Since the celebration of the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church has rediscovered that transmitting the faith is a personal encounter with Christ, which is done by means of the Sacred Scripture and Church’s living Tradition, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. In this way, the Church is continually regenerated by the Spirit. In the same manner, new generations receive sustenance in each moment of their personal encounter with Christ in his Body, an encounter which finds its full expression in the celebration of the Eucharist. The centrality of this work of transmitting the faith was reevaluated and highlighted in the two, most recent ordinary general assemblies, one on the Eucharist and the other dedicated to the Word of God in the life and mission of the Church. In these two synodal assemblies, the Church was asked to reflect on and become fully aware of the profound dynamic process which sustains her identity: The Church transmits the faith which she herself lives, celebrates and professes and to which she bears witness.
Such an awareness implies real responsibilities and challenges which the Church must meet in her work of transmitting the faith. The Church, as the People of God, must develop a greater awareness among her members of the role of the Word of God and its power to reveal and manifest God’s will for humanity and his plan of salvation. Greater care needs to be exercised in proclaiming the Word of God in liturgical assemblies and greater conviction and dedication given to the task of preaching. More attentiveness, conviction and trust is required in viewing the role of the Word of God in the Church’s mission, in both the actual time allotted to proclaiming the message of salvation as well to the more reflective moments of listening and dialogue with cultures.
The synod fathers gave particular attention to proclaiming the Word of God to future generations. “Often we encounter in them a spontaneous openness to hearing the Word of God and a sincere desire to know Jesus […] Concern for young people calls for courage and clarity in the message we proclaim; we need to help young people to gain confidence and familiarity with Sacred Scripture, so it can become a compass pointing out the path to follow. Young people need witnesses and teachers who can walk with them, teaching them to love the Gospel and to share it, especially with their peers, and thus to become authentic and credible messengers.” In the same manner, the synod fathers called upon Christian communities to “devise approaches to Christian initiation which, through listening to the Word, celebrating the Eucharist and the communal living of love and fellowship, will lead to a growth in faith. Consideration also needs to be given to the new questions arising from the greater mobility of peoples and the phenomenon of migration which are opening new horizons in evangelization. Migrants must not simply be evangelized but be trained themselves to be evangelizing agents.”
The synodal assembly emphatically called upon Christian communities to evaluate the degree to which the proclamation of the Word of God is the foundation of their work of transmitting the faith. “We need, then, to discover ever anew the urgency and the beauty of the proclamation of the Word for the coming of the Kingdom of God which Christ himself preached. […] All of us recognize how much the light of Christ needs to illumine every area of human life: the family, schools, culture, work, leisure and the other aspects of social life. It is not a matter of preaching a word of consolation, but rather a Word which disrupts, which calls to conversion and which opens the way to an encounter with the one through whom a new humanity flowers.”
The Pedagogy of the Faith
14. Transmitting the faith is not done in words only; it requires a relationship in prayer with God, which is faith-in-action. The liturgy, with its proper pedagogical elements, plays a decisive role in the formation of this relationship in prayer, because the one who instructs is God himself and the true teacher in the ways of prayer is the Holy Spirit.
The IV Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the topic of catechesis acknowledged, in addition to the rise in number and increased dedication of catechists, that catechesis is a gift of the Spirit and that the Church has devised methods in transmitting the faith which lead people to a personal encounter with Christ. In various ways, these many methods involve the faculties of individuals, their association in a social group, their attitudes, their questions and their searching. Such methods are the proper instruments of inculturation. To avoid distraction and confusion in its increasing, multi-directional development, Pope John Paul II took an observation of the synod fathers and made it a principle: the plurality of methods in catechesis can be a sign of vitality and complementarity, if each one of these methods knows how to interiorize and follow a fundamental law, that of a two-fold faithfulness to God and to the person, in one approach of love.
At the same time, the synod on catechesis was intent on not losing past benefits and values which sought to guarantee a systematic, integral, organic and hierarchical transmission of the faith.Consequently, the synod reproposed two basic instruments for transmitting the faith: catechesis and the catechumenate. In this manner, the Church actively transmits the faith, sowing it in the hearts of catechumens and the catechized so as to make their experiences particularly fruitful. The profession of the faith received by the Church (traditio), which sprouts and grows in the catechetical process, is, in turn, re-given (redditio), after being enriched with the values of different cultures. In this way, the catechumenate essentially becomes a centre of growth in catholicity and the seed-bed of ecclesial renewel.
The renewed emphasis on these two instruments – catechesis and the catechumenate – must give form to what is termed the “pedagogy of faith”, whose goal is to expand the idea of catechesis to include the transmission of the faith. Since the synod on catechesis, catechesis has now become nothing more than the process of transmitting the Gospel in the same manner as the Christian community has received it, understands it, celebrates it, lives it and communicates it. “The catechesis involved in initiation, which is both comprehensive and systematic, cannot simply be limited to this occasion and circumstance, because, in reality, such catechesis is formation for the Christian life. Though including the element of instruction, it goes beyond it, by essentially looking to the ‘basic elements’ of being a Christian, while avoiding disputed subjects or becoming a form of theological investigation. Finally, because of its part in initiation, this catechesis leads to incorporation into the community which lives, celebrates and bears witness to the faith, thereby, accomplishing, at one and the same time, the work of initiation, education and instruction. This inherent richness of the catechumenate of non-baptized adults should serve to inspire other forms of catechesis.”
Consequently, the catechumenate has become the model which the Church has recently adopted to give form to transmitting the faith. After having received renewed emphasis in the Second Vatican Council, the catechumenate was used in the reorganization and renewal of many programmes of catechesis in delineating the work of evangelization. The General Directory for Catechesis, while summarizing the important elements entailed in this task, leaves the onlooker to intuit the underlying reasons why so many local Churches have made use of this model in restructuring their activity of proclaiming and generating the faith and, indeed, arriving at a new model called the “post-baptismal catechumenate”, which is a continual reminder for the entire Church of the process of initiation into the faith and the responsibility of the entire Christian community. As a result, this new model puts Christ’s Paschal Mystery at the centre of all the Church’s programmes; makes inculturation the first step in pedagogy; and shows itself to be a true and proper formation process.
The Local Churches: Agents of Transmission
15. The agent for transmitting the faith is the entire Church which manifests itself in the local Churches, where proclamation, transmission and the lived experience of the Gospel are realized. Furthermore, the local Churches, in addition to performing this task, are also the fruit of this activity of proclaiming the Gospel and transmitting the faith, as seen in the experience of the first Christian communities (cf. Acts 2: 42-47). The Spirit gathers believers into communities that fervently live their faith, a faith which is nourished through listening to the teaching of the apostles, through the Eucharist and through the communities’ life of unselfish service to proclaiming the Kingdom of God. The Second Vatican Council used the same terms in describing the fundamental identity of each Christian community: “This Church of Christ is truly present in all legitimate local congregations of the faithful which, united with their pastors, are themselves called Churches in the New Testament. For in their locality, these are the new People called by God, in the Holy Spirit and in much fullness (cf. 1 Titus 1:5). In these communities, the faithful are gathered together by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ, and the celebration of the mystery of the Lord’s Supper, so that ‘by the food and blood of the Lord’s body the whole brotherhood may be joined together’.”
Life in our Churches can benefit from viewing the transmission of faith, and proclamation in general, as a concrete expression and ideal realization of this statement from the Council. In recent decades, a noteworthy number of Christians have naturally and freely undertaken the proclamation and transmission of the faith, an experience which has been a true gift of the Spirit to the Christian communities in our local Churches. The pastoral activity involved in transmitting the faith allows the Church to take part in various local, social settings and displays the richness and variety of her composite roles and services which enliven her daily life. Gathered around the bishop, priests, parents, consecrated persons, catechists and entire communities have a role, each with a proper task and competence.
However, in recounting these gifts and positive expectations, we must also note the challenges which many local Churches face as a result of new situations and various developments. The scarcity of priests makes their activity less incisive than desired. The general state of weariness and fatigue of many families undermines the role of parents. The lack in a common sharing in this evangelizing task limits the influence of the Christian community and contributes to the danger that the full weight of fulfilling such an important and fundamental activity might fall exclusively upon catechists, who are already feeling the burden of the task entrusted to them and the loneliness in doing it.
As stated initially, the cultural climate and the general state of fatigue in many Christian communities in our local Churches is endangering the proclamation of the faith, its transmission to others and instruction in the faith. The question of St. Paul the Apostle – “how are they to believe […] without a preacher?” (Rom 10:14) – is truly relevant today. In such a situation, however, we also witness the generosity of the Holy Spirit in the newness and vitality which groups and ecclesial movements have contributed to this task of transmitting the faith. At the same time, each of them is called upon to make sure that these fruits become more widespread and to lend their efforts to those forms of catechesis and transmission of the faith which may have lost their original enthusiasm.
Rendering an Account: The Manner of Proclamation
16. In light of the present situation, therefore, the local Churches are called to make renewed efforts and again put their trust in the Spirit who guides them, so that the local Churches might once again undertake, joyously and vigorously, the fundamental mission which Jesus entrusts to his disciples: to proclaim the Gospel (cf. Mk 16:15) and to preach the Kingdom (cf. Mk 3:15). Christians as a whole need to sense a real responsibility to respond to Jesus’ command and allow themselves to be guided by the Spirit in their response, each according to one’s vocation. At a time when choosing the faith and following Christ are difficult and little understood, if not indeed openly questioned and contradicted, the task of the community and every Christian must be undertaken with greater intensity, namely, to be witnesses and heralds of the Gospel, after the example of Jesus Christ.
This manner of acting is also recommended to us by St. Peter the Apostle, when he invites us to give an account and provide reasons, “for the hope that is in you” (1 Pt 3:15). The Spirit is indicating ways that our Christian communities can embark on a new season of witnessing to our faith and devise new forms of response (apo-logia) to those who ask the logos, that is, the reasons for our faith. Personal renewal will give greater incisiveness to our presence in the world, where we live-out the hope and salvation given us by Jesus Christ. As Christians, we are to learn a new manner of responding in “gentleness and reverence and a clear conscience” (1 Pt 3:15, 16) with the gentle strength which comes from union with Christ in the Spirit and with the conviction that our goal is a personal encounter with God the Father in his Kingdom.
This manner of acting ought to be all-encompassing, including our way of thinking and our deeds, individual conduct and public witness, the interior life of our communities and their efforts at being missionary, their attention to education and their concerned dedication for the poor, and the capacity of every Christian actively to take part in the conversations taking place within real-life situations and the workplace, so as to bring to these situations the Christian gift of hope. This manner of acting must reflect the zeal, trust and freedom in speaking out (parresia) as displayed in the preaching of the Apostles (cf. Acts 4:32; 9: 27, 28) and in the experience of King Agrippa in listening to St. Paul: “In a short time, you might convince me to become a Christian!” (Acts 26:28).
In times when many people are living lives which are truly and properly an experience of “the desert of God’s darkness, the emptiness of souls no longer aware of their dignity or the goal of human life”, Pope Benedict XVI reminds us that “the Church as a whole and all her Pastors, like Christ, must set out to lead people out of the desert, towards the place of life, towards friendship with the Son of God, towards the One who gives us life, and life in abundance.”
According to the logic of our faith, the world has every right to witness this manner of acting in our Church and in our Christian communities, a manner of acting as a community and on a person-to-person basis, one which requires self-evaluation by communities as a whole and each baptized person individually, as noted by Pope Paul VI: “side by side with the collective proclamation of the Gospel, the other form of transmission, the person-to-person one, remains valid and important. […] It must not happen that the pressing need to proclaim the Good News to the multitudes should cause us to forget this form of proclamation whereby an individual’s personal conscience is reached and touched by an entirely unique world that he receives from someone else.”
The Fruits of Transmitting the Faith
17. The goal of the entire process of transmitting the faith is to make the Church a community of witnesses of the Gospel. Pope Paul VI states: “She is the community of believers, the community of hope lived and communicated, the community of brotherly love, and she needs to listen unceasingly to what she must believe, to her reasons for hoping, to the new commandment of love. She is the People of God immersed in the world, and often tempted by idols, and she always needs to hear the proclamation of the ‘mighty works of God’ which converted her to the Lord; she always needs to be called together afresh by Him and reunited. In brief, this means that she has a constant need of being evangelized, if she wishes to retain freshness, vigour and strength in order to proclaim the Gospel.”
The results of this ongoing project of evangelization, which are generated in the Church as a sign of the life-giving power of the Gospel, take concrete form in the responses given to the challenges of our times. Families need to become true and real signs of love and sharing, with a capacity to hope in virtue of their openness to life. Forces are needed in building communities which have a true ecumenical spirit and are capable of dialogue with other religions. Courage is needed to sustain initiatives of social justice and solidarity, which put the poor at the centre of the Church’s concern. Joy needs to be more evident in the dedication of one’s life to a vocation to the priesthood or the consecrated life. A Church which transmits her faith, a Church of the “new evangelization”, is capable in every situation of demonstrating that the Spirit guides her and transforms the history of the Church, of individual Christians and of entire peoples and their culture.
Another fruit of transmitting the faith is the courage to speak out against infidelity and scandal which arise in Christian communities as a sign and consequence of moments of fatigue and weariness in the work of proclamation. Other fruits include: the courage to recognize and admit faults; the capacity to continue to witness to Jesus Christ, while recounting our continual need to be saved, knowing that – as St. Paul the Apostle teaches – we can look at our weakness so that in this way we can acknowledge the power of Christ who saves us (cf. 2 Cor 12:9; Rom 7:14ff.); the exercise of penance, a commitment to the work of purification and the will to make atonement for the consequences of our errors; and an unfailing trust that the hope which has been given us “does not disappoint us, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us” (Rom 5:5). All these fruits result from the process of transmitting the faith and proclaiming the Gospel, a process which first brings renewal to Christians and their communities, as it brings to the world the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
So that others might experience Christ is the goal of transmitting a faith intended to be shared with all, near and far. This goal is an incentive for mission.
1. How are our Christian communities places in the Church which provide people with a spiritual experience?
2. To what extent do our faith programmes have as an objective not only the intellectual adherence to Christian truth, but also the creation of an experience of a personal encounter, communion and “living” the mystery of Christ?
3. What solutions and responses have individual Churches made regarding creating spiritual experiences, which even younger generations are seeking today?
The Word of God and the Eucharist are the principal means and the privileged instruments for providing people with a spiritual experience of the Christian faith.
4. How have the two preceding ordinary general assemblies of the Synod of Bishops helped Christian communities increase the quality of their listening to the Word of God in our Churches? How have they helped to increase the quality of our Eucharistic celebrations?
5. What elements have received greater acceptance? What reflections and suggestions are still awaiting reception?
6. How have listening and discussion groups on the Word of God becoming common tools in the Christian life of our communities? How do our communities express the centrality of the Eucharist (celebrated and adored), and, based on this, programme their life and activity?
After decades of significant activity, catechesis is showing signs of fatigue and weariness, above all, in persons called to plan and sustain the Church’s activity in this field.
7. What is the practical experience in our Churches?
8. What efforts are being made to recognize and give a soundness to catechesis within out Christian communities? What efforts are being made to give concreteness and effectiveness to recognizing the active roles of others in their responsibility to transmit the faith (parents, godparents, the Christian community)?
9. What initiatives have been planned to support parents and encourage them in the task (in transmission and, consequently, the transmission of the faith), which culture sees less and less as their role?
In response to the Second Vatican Council, many episcopal conferences, in recent decades, have undertaken the work of reorganizing the programming of catechesis and the revision of catechetical texts.
10. What is the state-of-affairs in this regard?
11. What benefits have resulted in the process of transmitting the faith? What work was entailed and what obstacles have been encountered?
12. What role has The Catechism of the Catholic Church played in this replanning?
13. How do individual Christian communities (parishes) and various groups and movements work to guarantee that catechesis is as ecclesial as possible and co-ordinated and shared with others in the Church?
14. In the wake of significant cultural changes, what “teachable moments” are lacking or left untreated in our Church’s catechetical activity?
15. How has the catechumenate been employed by our Christian communities as a basis for planning programmes of catechesis and instruction in the faith?
Our times call upon the Church to renew her manner of evangelizing and display a new readiness to render an account of our faith and the hope which is ours.
16. How have the local Churches been able to communicate these new demands to Christian communities? What are the results? What work was needed and what obstacles were encountered?
17. Has the urgency of a new missionary proclamation become an habitual component of the pastoral activity of communities? Or has there been a decline in the conviction that this mission is also to be done in our local Christian communities and the everyday situations of our lives?
18. Besides communities as a whole, what individuals are bringing the gift of life to societies through the proclamation of the Gospel? What are their methods and activity? What are the results?
19. How have the baptized grown in the consciousness that they are being called in the first person to make this proclamation? What experiences can be recounted in this regard?
Proclamation and the transmission of the faith regenerate the Christian community.
20. What major fruits have been produced in our Churches through the transmission of the faith?
21. How much are individual Christian communities prepared to acknowledge these fruits, to sustain them and to nourish them? What fruits are greatly lacking?
22. What obstacles, trials and scandals impede this proclamation? How have communities learned to live these moments by drawing from them opportunities for spiritual and missionary renewal?
“Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age” (Mt 28:19,20).
Christian Initiation, the Evangelizing Process
18. Transmitting the faith amidst the changes in society and culture are posing challenges to Christianity today. Within the Church, the situation has caused an extensive process of reflection and rethinking in the approaches to be taken in initiating people into the faith and in access to the sacraments. Statements made during the Second Vatican Council, which at the time reflected the desire of many Christian communities, have become a reality in many local Churches today. Many of the elements listed by the Council are now a part of our everyday experience, beginning with an almost universal awareness of the intrinsic bond uniting the Sacraments of Christian Initiation. Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist are no longer seen as three separate sacraments but rather as stages in a growth process, from birth to adulthood in the Christian life, which is a part of the general programme of initiation into the faith. By now, Christian initiation is a well-known and well-founded idea and a pastoral instrument in our local Churches.
In this process, local Churches, which can boast of a centuries-old tradition of initiation into the faith, owe much to the younger Churches. Both have learned to use in their programmes of Christian initiation an adult model which is not limited to infants. The Sacrament of Baptism has assumed greater importance through the adoption of the ancient ritual of the catechumenate as a way of devising a pastoral programme which, in the context of our cultures, provides for a more conscious celebration of the Sacrament, a more in-depth preparation and a greater possibility that the newly baptized will more actively participate in the Christian life in the future. Many Christian communities have embarked on making significant changes in their baptismal practices by reevaluating ways to involve parents, in the case of infant baptism, and by more clearly indicating the occasion as a moment in evangelization and an opportunity explicitly to proclaim the faith. They have also sought to plan celebrations of the Sacrament of Baptism which allow for the greater involvement of the community and show more clearly the support parents have in the task which is theirs, including Christian instruction, a task becoming increasingly more difficult. Taking into account the experience of the Eastern Catholic Churches has also led to an emphasis on mystagogy, namely, considering the process of initiation as not being completed at the celebration of the Sacrament of Baptism but as an ongoing formative experience, thereby serving as a reminder that the goal of instruction is an adult, Christian faith.
This initial dialogue has prompted theological and pastoral reflection, which, taking into account the special character of the various rites, could assist the Church in finding a reformulation which shares in specific elements of these practices of initiation and instruction in the faith. An example in this regard is the question of the order of the Sacraments of Initiation. Different traditions exist within the Church. This diversity is clearly seen in the ecclesial customs of the East and the practice in the West for the initiation of adults and the procedure adopted for infants. Such diversity is further accentuated in the way the Sacrament of Confirmation is celebrated and experienced.
Clearly, the features of Western Christianity in the future and the capacity of the Christian faith to speak to western cultures will very much depend on how the Church in the West will deal with examining baptismal practice. This process of self-evaluation, however has not always brought positive results. Some misunderstood this evaluation process, or, still more, used it to make changes which were a real break with the past. From this vantage point, some saw the new practices as an opportunity to render a negative judgment on the Church’s recent past and, at the same time, to introduce unprecedented sociological models for speaking about and living Christianity today. Oftentimes, this thinking inevitably led to abandoning the practice of infant baptism. On the opposite extreme, a serious obstacle to the evaluation which was taking place at the time, was the inertia of some Christian communities, who were convinced that simply adhering to the routine activity of the past would guarantee goodness and success in the Church’s activity.
In this present process of evaluation, the Church is facing very important challenges in certain places and situations, which are forcing Christian communities to undertake the work of discernment and, subsequently, to adopt a new pastoral approach. Certainly, one of the Church’s challenges in these times is finding a commonly agreed-upon time for the celebration of the Sacrament of Confirmation. This topic arose during the XI Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the Eucharist and later treated by Pope Benedict XVI in the subsequent Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation. Recently, episcopal conferences have made various choices in this regard, based on different views (pedagogical, sacramental and ecclesial). Another challenge for the Church is her capacity to consider again the content and dynamic of mystagogy in re-planning the programme of initiation, without which an essential element in the process of engendering the faith would be lacking. Still another challenge is strongly to resist the temptation to relinquish, to certain academic or religious education programmes, the Church’s proper task to proclaim the Gospel and engender the faith, especially in the case of children and adolescents. Practices in this area vary nation-to-nation and, thus, do not allow for the formulation of a single, tailored response. Nonetheless, each local Church is called to make an evaluation.
We can easily see that initiation in the faith is an essential part of the task of evangelizing. The “new evangelization” has much to say on the subject. In fact, the Church needs to continue, in a significant and determined manner, the activity of discernment already done, and, at the same time, seek interior forces to reawaken individuals and communities who are displaying signs of fatigue and resignation. The features of our communities in the future will greatly depend on the energy expended in this area of pastoral concern and the concrete initiatives to be proposed and undertaken in its reassessment and efforts at starting afresh.
Initial Proclamation and the Need for New Forms of Discourse on God
19. Today’s world oftentimes poses another challenge in the work of evaluating the programme of initiating people in the faith, namely, the increasing difficulty of men and women today to listen to others speaking about God and to encounter places and experiences which open them to the subject of God. The Church has been dealing with this question for some time by not only pointing out the difficulty but also providing various ways of responding. In fact, Pope Paul VI, taking this challenge into account, urgently proposed that the Church search for new ways to present the Christian faith. This gave rise to the idea of “initial proclamation”, understood to be an explicit statement, or more precisely, a proclamation of the fundamental content of our faith.
At the time, the expression “initial proclamation” was taken over and utilized in restructuring the process of introduction to the faith. Intended to be addressed to non-believers, namely, those who are indifferent to religion, initial proclamation has, generally speaking, the function of both proclaiming the Gospel and calling to conversion those who until now do not know Jesus Christ. Catechesis, distinct from the initial proclamation of the Gospel, promotes growth in this initial conversion and provides instruction in the faith to those who have converted, thus incorporating them into the Christian community. The relation between these two forms of the ministry of the Word is not, however, always easy to discover; nor is it easily done; nor should it necessarily be stated emphatically. Instead, the relation can be perceived as a two-fold action which is found united in the same pastoral activity. In fact, frequently people who come for catechesis need to live more truly converted lives. Therefore, the programmes of catechesis and introduction in the faith might benefit from putting greater emphasis on the proclamation of the Gospel, which is a call to this conversion and which fosters and sustains it. In this way, the new evangelization can reinvigorate the present programmes of instruction in the faith by accentuating the kergymatic character of proclamation.
An initial response to this challenge, then, has already been done. However, in addition to this response, the discernment which we are undertaking requires a deeper understanding of the reasons why a discourse on God in our culture is so foreign. The question might initially call for seeing how much this concerns Christian communities themselves, who need to devise the forms and means for speaking about God, which can then equip them to respond to the anxieties and expectations of people today, showing them how the newness of Christ is the gift which all of us await and for which each of us yearns as the unexpressed desire in our search for meaning and our thirst for the truth. Consequently, the absence of this discourse on God provides an occasion for missionary proclamation. Everyday life will help us to identify those “Courtyards of the Gentiles” in which our words become not only heard but also meaningful and a remedy for the ills of humanity. The task of the “new evangelization” is to lead both practicing Christians as well as those who have questions about God and are in search of him, to perceive his personal call in their conscience. The new evangelization is an invitation to Christian communities to place greater trust in the Spirit who guides them in the course of history. In this way, they can overcome the temptation to fear and more clearly see the places and programmes where the question of God can be raised amidst people’s lives today.
Initiation in the Faith; Education in the Truth
20. A consequence of the necessity to speak about God is the possibility and necessity of a similar discourse on man, which is demanded of evangelization and is directly linked to it, since a strong bond exists between initiation in the faith and education, as stated by the Second Vatican Council. This has been recently reconfirmed by Pope Benedict XVI: “Some today question the Church’s involvement in education, wondering whether her resources might be better placed elsewhere. […] The Church’s primary mission of evangelization, in which educational institutions play a crucial role, is consonant with a nation’s fundamental aspiration to develop a society truly worthy of the human person’s dignity. At times, however, the value of the Church’s contribution to the public forum is questioned. It is important therefore to recall that the truths of faith and reason never contradict one another.” With revealed truth, the Church purifies reason and assists humanity to recognize the ultimate truth as the foundation of morality and human ethics. By her nature, the Church sustains essential moral categories, keeping hope alive in humanity.
Pope Benedict XVI lists the reasons why it is natural that evangelization and initiation in the faith include educational activity, a work which the Church undertakes as a service to the world. These times and today’s cultural settings seem to be making every form of educational activity so difficult and open to criticism that the Pope himself speaks of an “educational emergency”.
In employing the term “educational emergency”, the Pope intends to refer to the increasing difficulty which is encountered today by not only Christian educational activity but also educational activity in general. Transmitting to new generations the basic values for living and right conduct is becoming more arduous. Such is the case with not only parents, who witness a steady erosion of their ability to influence the educational process, but also those professionally engaged in educational activity, beginning with the school.
Such a situation was somewhat predictable in societies and cultures that are oftentimes dominated by relativism, which lacks the light of truth. Many consider speaking of truth as too onerous and too “authoritarian”. Such thinking leads to doubting the goodness of life -“Is it good to be a human being?” “Is it good to be alive?”- and the validity of relationships and commitments which make up life. In such a context, how is it possible to propose to young people and transmit to generation-after-generation – both as individuals and communities – even the most basic elements of stability and certitude, rules for living, the authentic meaning of human existence and goals to be pursued? As a result, education increasingly tends to be reduced to simply communicating to persons determined skills and teaching succeeding generations to gratify their desire for happiness through the products of consumerism or through a short-lived self-gratification. In light of this, parents and teachers are easily tempted to relinquish their proper educational task and, no longer understanding what their role might be, the mission entrusted to them.
This constitutes the “educational emergency”: we are no longer able to offer to the young and new generations all that we are supposed to transmit to them. We are also debtors in their regard concerning the true values which serve as the foundation for living. In this way, the essential purpose of education ends up unfulfilled and forgotten, namely, forming individuals capable of living life to the full and of making their unique contribution to the common good. In various places, the question of authentic education is increasingly being raised as well as the need for those who are truly educators. Parents (concerned and oftentimes in anguish about the future of their children) are requesting the same of teachers (who live the sad experience of the degradation of school) and society itself, where the very basis for living together is being threatened.
In this situation, the Church’s duty in instruction in the faith, in discipleship and witness to the Lord becomes, more than ever, a real contribution, which permits our society to emerge from the affliction caused by the educational crisis, by dispelling mistrust and the alienating “hatred of self”, not to mention other forms of self-degradation so characteristic of certain cultures. The Church’s duty in this regard can provide Christians with the opportunity to venture forth into the public spaces of our societies and, in these places, speak again about God and bring the Church’s gift of a tradition of proper educational activity, which Christian communities, guided by the Spirit, have exercised for centuries.
The Church, therefore, has an age-old tradition in education, namely pedagogical resources, studies and research, institutions, personnel – consecrated and non-consecrated from religious orders and congregations – in a position to provide a significant Church presence in academic institutions and educational activity, in general. Moreover, concerned about the social and cultural developments taking place in our times, this tradition has itself undergone significant changes. Consequently, a process of discernment in this area would be beneficial not simply to distinguish discussion points about these changes but also to recognize the spiritual resources and future challenges in education which need to be adequately addressed. At the same time, we must be fully aware that the Church’s basic task is education in the faith, discipleship and a life of witness and helping people enter into a personal relationship with Christ and the Father.
The Goal of an “Ecology of the Human Person”
21. The goal of the Church’s entire educational commitment is easily identified, namely, working to construct what Pope Benedict XVI calls an “ecology of the human person”. “There is need for what might be called a human ecology, correctly understood. […] The decisive issue is the overall moral tenor of society. If there is a lack of respect for the right to life and to a natural death, if human conception, gestation and birth are made artificial, if human embryos are sacrificed to research, the conscience of society ends up losing the concept of human ecology and, along with it, that of environmental ecology. It is contradictory to insist that future generations respect the natural environment when our educational systems and laws do not help them to respect themselves. The book of nature is one and indivisible: it takes in not only the environment but also life, sexuality, marriage, the family, social relations: in a word, integral human development. Our duties towards the environment are linked to our duties towards the human person, considered in himself and in relation to others. It would be wrong to uphold one set of duties while trampling on the other. Herein lies a grave contradiction in our mentality and practice today: one which demeans the person, disrupts the environment and damages society.”
The Christian faith assists the intelligence in understanding the profound underlying equilibrium of history and all-existence. It accomplishes this not in a general or external way but by sharing with reason a thirst for knowledge and inquiry, directing reason towards the well-being of man and the cosmos. The Christian faith helps us understand the profound content of basic human experiences, as the above text shows. This critical and focussed discussion has been the work of Catholicism for a long time. The Church becomes increasingly better equipped in this work by establishing institutions, centres of research and universities, which are the fruit of the intuition and charisms of some institutes or of the concern of local Churches for education. These institutions fulfill their role in collaborative efforts in research and the development of knowledge in various cultures and societies. The social and cultural changes presented thus far are raising questions and posing challenges to these institutions. Because of her commitment to education and culture, the Church is called to undertake a process of discernment, which is the first step in the “new evangelization”, so as to be able to distinguish the critical aspects of these challenges and forces and adopt the strategies which will be a guarantee in the future of not only the Church but also the individual and humanity.
Surely, a “new evangelization” considers these areas of culture as “Courtyards of the Gentiles”, helping them live up to their basic purpose or “vocation” in the changes they are experiencing, namely, bringing the question of God and the Christian faith to the conversations of our times and making these areas a place where persons can be formed to be free and mature and, in turn, capable of bringing the question of God into their own lives, families and workplace.
Evangelizers and Educators as Witnesses
22. The present “educational emergency” gives particular meaning to the words of Pope Paul VI: “‘Modern man listens more willingly to witnesses than to teachers, and if he does listen to teachers, it is because they are witnesses.’ […] It is therefore primarily by her conduct and by her life that the Church will evangelize the world, in other words, by her living witness of fidelity to the Lord Jesus – the witness of poverty and detachment, of freedom in the face of the powers of this world, in short, the witness of sanctity.” No matter what the proposal in the “new evangelization” and no matter what the pastoral project of proclamation and transmission of the faith, there is no escaping the fact that people’s lives give force to the their efforts at evangelization. Precisely in this manner, their life has an exemplary character, confirming the authenticity of their selfless dedication and of the truth of what they teach and call upon others to live. Today’s “educational emergency” calls upon educators to know how to be credible witnesses of this reality and of the values which can serve as the basis for personal existence and the shared projects of living together in society. In this regard, it is sufficient to recall the exemplary lives of St. Paul, St. Patrick, St. Boniface, St. Francis Xavier, Saints Cyril and Methodius, St. Turibius of Mongrovejo, St. Damien de Veuster and Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta.
For the Church today, this means providing support and formation for the many people who have long been engaged in the work of evangelization and education (bishops, priests, catechists, educators, teachers and parents). The same is also true for Christian communities, who are called to show a greater consciousness of this responsibility and to commit more resources to this essential task for the future of the Church and humanity. The centrality of the work of evangelization, proclamation and transmission needs to be clearly stated in our Churches. Its priority in the activities of individual communities also needs to be reassessed so as to consolidate energy and forces in the shared project of a “new evangelization”.
Sustaining and nourishing the faith necessarily begins in the family, the basic unit of society and the prime place for learning to pray. Teaching the faith essentially takes place in the family in the form of teaching children how to pray. In praying together with their children, parents accustom them to be conscious of the loving presence of the Lord and, at the same time, they themselves become credible witnesses to their children.
The formation and concern needed to sustain those already engaged in evangelization and recruiting new forces should not be limited simply to practical preparation, albeit necessary. Instead, formation and pastoral care is predominantly to be spiritual in nature, namely, a school of faith, enlightened by the Gospel of Jesus Christ and under the guidance of the Spirit, which teaches people the implications of experiencing the Fatherhood of God. People are able to evangelize only when they have been evangelized and allow themselves to be evangelized, that is, renewed spiritually through a personal encounter and lived communion with Jesus Christ. Such people have the power to transmit the faith, as St. Paul the Apostle testifies: “I believed, and so I spoke” (2 Cor4:13).
The new evangelization, then, which is primarily a task-to-be-done and a spiritual challenge, is the responsibility of all Christians who are in serious pursuit of holiness. In this context and with this understanding of formation, it will be useful to dedicate space and time to considering the institutions and means available to local Churches to make baptized persons more conscious of their duty in missionary work and evangelization. For our witness to be credible, as we respond to each of these areas requiring the new evangelization, we must know how to speak in ways that are intelligible to our times and proclaim, inside these areas, the reasons for our hope which bolsters our witness (cf.1 Pt 3:15). Such a task is not accomplished without effort, but requires attentiveness, education and concern.
The new evangelization is proposed as an exercise in evaluating every area and activity in the Church so that the Gospel might be proclaimed to the world.
1. Are our Christian communities well-aware of the practice of “initial proclamation”? Is it generally taking place in our Christian communities?
2. Do Christian communities plan pastoral activity with the specific aim of preaching conformity to the Gospel and conversion to Christianity?
3. Generally speaking, how are individual Christian communities meeting the demands of devising new forms of raising the question of God in society and in the communities themselves? What meaningful experiences deserve to be shared with other particular Churches?
4. How has the idea of the “Courtyard of the Gentiles” been taken up and developed in our various local Churches?
5. What priority have individuals Christian communities placed on the commitment to attempt bold new ways of evangelization? What initiatives have been most successful in opening Christian communities to missionary work?
6. What experiences, institutions and new associations or groups were formed or developed to proclaim the Gospel to humanity in a joyous and transmissible manner?
7. What has resulted from collaborative endeavours among the above groups and parish communities?
The Church has devoted much energy to reformulating the programmes of initiation and instruction in the faith.
8. How much has the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults been a model in reevaluating the programme of initiation in the faith in our communities?
9. To what extent was it used in Christian initiation? In what way? How has it helped in reevaluating the pastoral programme for Baptism and in emphasizing the bonds between the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and the Eucharist?
10. The Eastern Catholic Churches administer to infants all three Sacraments of Christian Initiation. How is this experience rich yet different? How has this practice affected the thinking and changes taking place in Christian initiation in the Catholic Churches?
11. How has the “Baptismal catechumenate” inspired a reevaluation of the programme of preparation for the sacraments, transforming them into a spiritual journey in Christian initiation and actively involving not simply the recipients but the various members of the community (particularly adults)? How are Christian communities supporting parents in their increasingly difficult task of transmitting the faith?
12. What developments have taken place in scheduling the Sacrament of Confirmation within this spiritual journey? What are the reasons?
13. How have elements from mystagogy been incorporated in this process?
14. How successful have Christian communities been able to adapt the process of instruction in the faith to adults, thereby avoiding the danger of limiting it to infants only?
15. How do the local Churches view the role of proclamation and the necessity of giving greater importance to the genesis of faith and the pastoral programme for Baptism?
16. How have parish communities avoided the temptation of leaving the work of instruction in the faith to other agents of religious education (for example, their passing the responsibility to schools, thus confusing instruction in the faith with possible cultural forms of religiously-oriented education)?
In our Churches, the challenge of education is a true and proper emergency.
17. To what degree has this challenge been noticed and addressed? What means are available in this regard?
18. Is the presence of Catholic institutions in the academic world an assistance in responding to this challenge? What changes in these institutions are of interest? What resources are available to respond to this challenge?
19. What bond exists between these institutions and other ecclesial institutions? Among these institutions and parish life?
20. In what way are these institutions able to participate in culture and society by contributing the Christian faith-experience to public discussion and mentalities oftentimes determined by culture today?
21. What is the relation between Catholic institutions and other educational institutions? What is the relation between them and society in general?
22. How can the great cultural institutions (Catholic universities, cultural centres, research centres), left to us as a historical legacy, have a voice in the present-day discussion on the basic values of the person (defence of life, family, peace, justice solidarity, creation)?
23. How can they assist people to broaden their minds and seek truth so as to recognize the traces of God’s plan which gives meaning to our history? And in a corresponding way, how do they help Christian communities discern and promote listening to the inquiries and deep expectations of culture today?
24. Which Church institutions can be said to be included in the so-called experience of the “Courtyard of the Gentiles”? Which ones are places where Christians can show a boldness in devising forms of dialogue, which meet the deeply-felt expectations of humanity and its thirst for God? Which ones are places where Christians can show a boldness in raising the question of God in these discussions? Which ones are places where Christians can show a boldness in sharing their experiences of their search for God and give their account of personally encountering him in the Gospel of Jesus Christ?
The project of the new evangelization requires formation in view of proclamation and witness.
25. How are Christian communities displaying their awareness of the urgency of recruiting, forming and supporting persons to be evangelizers and educators through the witness of their lives?
26. What services – institutionalized ministries or otherwise (which is more often the case) – have arisen (or been encouraged) in the local Church which clearly have evangelization as a goal?
27. How do parishes show an openness to the vitality of certain movements and charismatic groups?
28. In recent decades, many episcopal conferences have made missionary work and evangelization central components and a priority in their pastoral planning. What are the results? How have they been able to make Christian communities aware of the “spiritual” aspect of this missionary challenge?
29. How has emphasis on the “new evangelization” assisted in the reevaluation and reorganization of formation programmes for candidates to the priesthood? How have the various institutions responsible for this formation (diocesan seminaries, regional seminaries, seminaries staffed by religious orders) been able to reevaluate and adapt their rule of life to this priority?
30. How has the ministry of the permanent deaconate been included in the Church’s mandate to evangelize?
“You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you”(Acts 1:8).
Pentecost: The Basis of the “New Evangelization”
23. In his coming among us, Jesus Christ made us sharers in his divine life which renews the face of the earth and makes all things new (cf. Rev 21:5). His revelation made us not only recipients of the gift of salvation but also its proclaimers and witnesses. In order to fulfill this task, the Spirit of the Risen Christ brings effectiveness to our proclamation of the Gospel in every part of the world. This was the experience of the first Christian community which saw the Word of God spread through preaching and witness (cf. Acts 6:7).
Chronologically speaking, the first evangelization began on the day of Pentecost, when the Apostles, gathered together in prayer with the Mother of Christ, received the Holy Spirit. In this way, Mary, who according to the words of the Archangel is “full of grace”, was present during apostolic evangelization and continues to be present in those places where the successors of the Apostles strive to proclaim the Gospel.
The new evangelization does not mean a “new Gospel”, because “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and for ever” (Heb 13:8), but rather, a new response to the needs of humanity and people today in a manner adapted to the signs of the times and to the new situations in cultures, which are the basis of our personal identity and the places where we seek the meaning of our existence. Consequently, a “new evangelization” means to promote a culture more deeply grounded in the Gospel and to discover the new man who is in us through the Spirit given us by Jesus Christ and the Father. The preparatory programme for the XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops sets the stage for the new evangelization. For the Church, its celebration could be likened to a new Cenacle, in which the successors of the Apostles will gather together in prayer with the Mother of Christ, who has been called the Star of the New Evangelization.
The “New Evangelization”: A Vision for the Church of Today and Tomorrow
24. In these pages, we have spoken many times of a new evangelization. In closing, we can better understand the profound meaning of the expression and its inherent appeal by turning to Pope John Paul II, who greatly supported and propagated this idea. He insisted that a “new evangelization” means “to rekindle in ourselves the impetus of the Church’s beginnings and allow ourselves to be filled with the ardour of the apostolic preaching which followed Pentecost. We must revive in ourselves the burning conviction of Paul, who cried out: ‘Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel’ (1 Cor 9:16). This passion will not fail to stir in the Church a new sense of mission, which cannot be left to a group of ‘specialists’ but must involve the responsibility of all the members of the People of God. Those who have come into genuine contact with Christ cannot keep him for themselves, they must proclaim him. A new apostolic outreach is needed, which will be lived as the everyday commitment of Christian communities and groups. “
The present text also made reference to changes and developments. We are facing situations which are signs of massive changes, often causing apprehension and fear. These situations require a new vision, which allows us to look to the future with eyes full of hope and not with tears of despair. As “Church”, we already have this vision, namely, the Kingdom to come, which was announced to us by Christ and described in his parables. This Kingdom is already communicated to us through his preaching and, above all, through his death and resurrection. Nevertheless, we oftentimes feel unable to enflesh this vision, in other words, to “make it our own” and to “bring it to life” for ourselves and the people we meet everyday, and to make it the basis for the Church’s life and all her pastoral activities.
In this regard, the Second Vatican Council and the Popes since its celebration have clearly set down a priority in the Church’s pastoral project for the present and the future – a “new evangelization”, namely, a new proclamation of Jesus’ message, which brings joy and sets people free. This priority can be the basis of this much needed vision; the vision of an evangelizing Church which was the point of departure of the present text and is now the task assigned to us at its conclusion. The entire process of the discernment required of us is aimed at instilling that vision deep in our hearts, in the heart of each of us and in the hearts of our Churches, for the sake of serving the world.
The Joy of Evangelizing
25. A new evangelization means to share the world’s deep desire for salvation and render our faith intelligible by communicating the logos of hope (cf. 1 Pt 3:15). Humanity needs hope to live in these present times. The content of this hope is “God, who has a human face and who ‘has loved us to the end’.” For this reason, the Church is, by her very nature, missionary. We cannot selfishly keep for ourselves the words of eternal life, which we received in our personally encountering Jesus Christ. They are destined for each and every person. Each person today, whether he knows it or not, needs this proclamation.
To be unaware of this need creates a desert and an emptiness. In fact, the obstacles to the new evangelization are precisely a lack of joy and hope among people, caused and spread by various situations in our world today. Oftentimes, this lack of joy and hope is so strong that it affects the very tenor of our Christian communities. This is the reason for renewing the appeal for a new evangelization, not simply as an added responsibility but as a way to restore joy and life to situations imprisoned in fear.
We therefore approach the new evangelization with a sense of enthusiasm. We will learn the sweet and comforting joy of evangelizing, even at times when proclamation might seem like a seed sown among tears (cf. Ps 126:6). “May it mean for us – as it did for John the Baptist, for Peter and Paul, for the other apostles and for a multitude of splendid evangelizers all through the Church’s history – an interior enthusiasm that nobody and nothing can quench. May it be the great joy of our consecrated lives. And may the world of our time, which is searching, sometimes with anguish, sometimes with hope, be enabled to receive the Good News not from evangelizers who are dejected, discouraged, impatient or anxious, but from ministers of the Gospel whose lives glow with fervor, who have first received the joy of Christ, and who are willing to risk their lives so that the Kingdom may be proclaimed and the Church established in the midst of the world.”
 BENEDICT XVI, Apostolic Letter motu proprioUbicumque et semper, establishing the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelization (21 September 2010),L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 20 October 2010, p. 6.
 SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 4.
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Homily at the Sanctuary of the Holy Cross, Mogila, Poland (9 June 1979), 1; L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 16 July 1979, p. 11: AAS 71 (1979) 865. “Where the Cross is raised, there is raised the sign that that place has now been reached by the Good News of Man’s salvation through Love. […] The new wooden Cross was raised not far from here at the very time we were celebrating the Millennium. With it we were givena sign that on the threshold of the new millennium, in these new times, these new conditions of life, the Gospel is again being proclaimed. A new evangelization has begun, as if it were a new proclamation, even if in reality it is the same as ever.”
 JOHN PAUL II, Discourse to the XIX Assembly of C.E.L.AM. (9 March 1983), 3:L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 18 April 1983, p. 9: AAS 75 (1983) 778.
 JOHN PAUL II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris missio (7 December 1990), 30: AAS 83 (1991)276; cf. Also ibid., 1-3: AAS 83 (191) 249-252.
 JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles laici (30 December 1988), 35: AAS 81 (1989) 458.
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Africa (14 September 1995) 57, 63: AAS 85 (1996) 35, 36, 39, 40; Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America (22 January 1999), 6, 66: AAS 91 (1999) 10, 11, 56; Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 2: AAS 92 (2000) 450, 451; Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Oceania (22 November 2001) 18: AAS 94 (2002) 386-389.
 JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Europa (28 June 2003), 2:AAS 95 (2003) 650, which refers to n. 2 of the Final Declaration of the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, 1991; cf. also ibid., 45: AAS 95 (2003) 677.
 Cf. ibid., 32, AAS 95 (2003) 670: “At the same time I wish to assure once more the pastors and our brothers and sisters of the Orthodox Churches that the new evangelization is in no way to be confused with proselytism, without prejudice to the duty of respect for truth, for freedom and for the dignity of every person.”; A treatment of the necessity of evangelization, the difference between evangelization and proselytism and the subject of evangelization in ecumenism can be found in the document of the CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH, Doctrinal Notes on Certain Aspects of Evangelization (3 December 2007), 10-12: AAS 100 (2008) 498-503.
 BENEDICT XVI, Discourse at Christmastime to the Roman Curia and Papal Representatives (21 December 2009): L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 23/30 December 2009), p. 18: AAS 102 (2010) 40. The image of the “Courtyard of the Gentiles” is again taken up by Pope Benedict XVI in the Message for the World Day of Social Communications, 2010 (AAS 102  117) in which the new “Courtyards of the Gentiles” are the areas in society created by the new media and which are increasingly engaging more people: the new evangelization means to devise ways to proclaim the Gospel, even in these technologically advanced areas.
 Cf., for example, ST. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, Protreptico IX, 87, 3-4 (SC, 2, 154); ST. AUGUSTINE, Sermo 14, D[‘352 A], 3 (Nuova Biblioteca Agostiniana, XXXV/1, 269-271).
 Cf., for example, JOHN PAUL II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris missio (7 December 1990), 37: AAS 83 (1991 282-286.
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Discourse to the Plenary Assembly of the Pontifical Council for Culture (8 March 2008), L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 19 March 2008, p. 2.
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in veritate (29 June 2009), 42: AAS101 (2009) 677-678.
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris missio (7 December 1990), 37, AAS 83 (1991) 282-286; BENEDICT XVI, Message for the World Day of Social Communications, 2010: AAS 102 (2010) 117.
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in veritate (29 June 2009), 42: AAS101 (2009) 678: “For a long time it was thought that poor peoples should remain at a fixed stage of development, and should be content to receive assistance from the philanthropy of developed peoples. Paul VI strongly opposed this mentality in Populorum Progressio. Today the material resources available for rescuing these peoples from poverty are potentially greater than before, but they have ended up largely in the hands of people from developed countries, who have benefitted more from the liberalization that has occurred in the mobility of capital and labour. The world-wide diffusion of forms of prosperity should not therefore be held up by projects that are self-centred, protectionist or at the service of private interests. Indeed the involvement of emerging or developing countries allows us to manage the crisis better today. The transition inherent in the process of globalization presents great difficulties and dangers that can only be overcome if we are able to appropriate the underlying anthropological and ethical spirit that drives globalization towards the humanizing goal of solidarity. Unfortunately this spirit is often overwhelmed or suppressed by ethical and cultural considerations of an individualistic and utilitarian nature.”
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Encyclical Letter Spe salvi (30 November 2007), 22: AAS 99 (2007) 1003-1004.
 Cf. CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation Orationis formas (15 October 1989): AAS 82 (1990) 362-379; DeS 13 (1991).
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles laici (30 December 1988), 34: AAS 81 (1989) 455.
 Ibid., 34: AAS 81 (1989) 455, referred to in the Apostolic Letter motu proprioUbicumque et semper, establishing the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelization (21 September 2010).
 JOHN PAUL II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris missio (7 December 1990), 34: AAS 83 (1991) 279, 280.
 Cf. V General Conference of Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Final Document, Aparecida (Brazil), May, 2007, 365-370: http://www.celam.org/nueva/ Celam/ aparecida/Ingles.pdf, p. 87.
 Cf. ORIGIN, In Evangelium scundum Matthaeum 17, 7: PG 13, 1197 B; ST. JEROME,Translatio homiliarum Origenis in Lucam, 36: PL 26, 324-325.
 As mentioned in SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Dei Verbum, 4: “To see Jesus Christ is to see his Father (cf. Jn 14:9). For this reason, Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making himself present and manifesting himself: through his words and deeds, his signs and wonders, but especially through his death and glorious resurrection from the dead and final sending of the Spirit of truth. Moreover, he confirmed with divine testimony what revelation proclaimed, that God is with us to free us from the darkness of sin and death, and to raise us up to life eternal.”
 Cf. CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH, Doctrinal Notes on Certain Aspects of Evangelization (3 December 2007), 2: AAS 100 (2008) 490.
 BENEDICT XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus caritas est (25 December 2005), 1: AAS 98 (2006) 217.
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Apostolic Constitution Fidei depositum (11 October 1992): AAS 86 (1994) 113-118; referred to in CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), 122: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/ congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_17041998_directory- for‑catechesis_en.html.
 JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles laici (30 December 1988), 34: AAS 81 (1989) 455; cf. JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America (22 January 1999), 66: AAS 91 (1999) 801; BENEDICT XVI Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Verbum Domini (30 September 2010), 94:
 Cf. CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), 47: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/
“The conciliar decree Ad Gentesclarifies well the dynamic of the process of evangelization: Christian witness, dialogue and presence in charity (11-12), the proclamation of the Gospel and the call to conversion (13), the catechumenate and Christian Initiation (14), the formation of the Christian communities through and by means of the sacraments and their ministers (15-18) This is the dynamic for establishing and building up the Church.”
 Ibid., 48. The Directory gives a clear, precise summary of the elements contained in the conciliar decree Ad gentes, Pope Paul VI’s Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii nuntiandi and the Encyclical letter of Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris mssio.
 Cf. SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum, 7ff.
 Cf. XII ORDINARY GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE SYNOD OF BISHOPS, Message to the People of God (24 October 2008), part III.
 XII ORDINARY GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE SYNOD OF BISHOPS, Final List of Propositions (25 October 2008), Prop. 38; BENEDICT XVI, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Verbum Domini (30 September 2010), 74, 105:
http: //www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_ben‑xvi_ exh_20100930_verbum‑domini_en.html.
 Cf. JOHN PAUL II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi tradendae(16 October 1979), 3: AAS71 (1979) 1279: “This Synod worked in an exceptional atmosphere of thanksgiving and hope. It saw catechetical renewal as a precious gift from the Holy Spirit to the Church of today, a gift to which Christian communities at all levels throughout the world are responding with a generosity and inventive dedication that win admiration. The requisite discernment could then be brought to bear on a reality that is very much alive and it could benefit from great openness among the People of God to the grace of the Lord and the directives of the magisterium.” An evaluation of the situation of catechesis, its progress and problems can be found in CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY,General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), 29-30: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congrega- tions/cclergy/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_17041998_directory-for-catechesis_ en.html.
 JOHN PAUL II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi tradendae(16 October 1979), 58:AAS.71 (1979) 1324. 1325: “There is also a pedagogy of faith, and the good that it can do for catechesis cannot be overstated. In fact, it is natural that techniques perfected and tested for education in general should be adapted for the service of education in the faith. However, account must always be taken of the absolute originality of faith. Pedagogy of faith is not a question of transmitting human knowledge, even of the highest kind; it is a question of communicating God’s revelation in its entirety. Throughout sacred history, especially in the Gospel, God Himself used a pedagogy that must continue to be a model for the pedagogy of faith. A technique is of value in catechesis only to the extent that it serves the faith that is to be transmitted and learned; otherwise it is of no value.”; This treatment was readdressed and reformulated in CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), 143, 144: http://www.vatican.va/ roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_ 17041998_directory‑for‑catechesis_en.html.
 Cf. SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Decree on the Missionary Activity of the Church Ad gentes, 14: “Those who, through the Church, have accepted from God a belief in Christ are admitted to the catechumenate by liturgical rites. The catechumenate is not a mere expounding of doctrines and precepts, but a training period in the whole Christian life, and an apprenticeship duty drawn out, during which disciples are joined to Christ their Teacher. Therefore, catechumens should be properly instructed in the mystery of salvation and in the practice of Gospel morality, and by sacred rites which are to be held at successive intervals, they should be introduced into the life of faith, of liturgy, and of love, which is led by the People of God. Then, when the sacraments of Christian initiation have freed them from the power of darkness, having died with Christ been buried with Him and risen together with him, they receive the Spirit of adoption of sons and celebrate the remembrance of the Lord’s death and resurrection together with the whole People of God. […] But this Christian initiation in the catechumenate should be taken care of not only by catechists or priests, but by the entire community of the faithful, so that right from the outset the catechumens may feel that they belong to the people of God. And since the life of the Church is an apostolic one, the catechumens also should learn to cooperate wholeheartedly, by the witness of their lives and by the profession of their faith, in the spread of the Gospel and in the building up of the Church.”
 CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), 91: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/
“Post-baptismal catechesis, without slavishly imitating the structure of the baptismal catechumenate, and recognizing in those to be catechized the reality of their Baptism, does well, however, to draw inspiration from ‘this preparatory school for the Christian life’, and to allow itself to be enriched by those principal elements which characterize the catechumenate.”
 SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL Dogmatic Constitution on the ChurchLumen gentium, 26. This text is cited and incorporated in the General Directory for Catechesis, 217, initiating a treatment of those responsible for catechetical activity in the Church.
 A presentation on the role and responsibilities of each of these persons in proclaiming the faith can be found in CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, General Directory for Catechesis(15 August 1997), 219-232: http://www.vatican.va/roman_ curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_17041998_ directory‑for‑catechesis_en.html.
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Discourse to the IV National Ecclesial Convention in Italy (19 October 2006), Verona: L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 25 October 2006, pp. 6, 8: AAS 98 (2006) 804-817.
 BENEDICT XVI, Homily at the Liturgy Inaugurating his Petrine Ministry (24 April 2005): L’Osservatrore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 27 April 2005, p. 1, 8: AAS 97 (2005) 710.
 Cf. SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Declaration on Religious FreedomDignitatis humanae, 6.
 Cf. SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Decree on the Missionary Activity of the Church Ad gentes, 14.
 The publication of the Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum (typical edition 1972, revised and republished in 1974) greatly aided the process. In the revision of catechetical practice, this ritual very much reflected catechetical thinking at the time.
 All these topics are treated in the General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997), under the title “Baptismal catecheumenate”: Cf. ibid., 88-91: http://www.vatican.va/ roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_ ccatheduc_doc_ 17041998_ directory‑for‑catechesis_en.html.
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Sacramentum caritatis (22 February 2007) 18: AAS 99 (2007) 119: “In this regard, attention needs to be given to the order of the Sacraments of Initiation. Different traditions exist within the Church. There is a clear variation between, on the one hand, the ecclesial customs of the East and the practice of the West regarding the initiation of adults, and, on the other hand, the procedure adopted for children. Yet these variations are not properly of the dogmatic order, but are pastoral in character. Concretely, it needs to be seen which practice better enables the faithful to put the sacrament of the Eucharist at the centre, as the goal of the whole process of initiation. In close collaboration with the competent offices of the Roman Curia, Bishops’ Conferences should examine the effectiveness of current approaches to Christian initiation, so that the faithful can be helped both to mature through the formation received in our communities and to give their lives an authentically eucharistic direction, so that they can offer a reason for the hope within them in a way suited to our times (cf. 1 Pet 3:15).”
 Cf. BENEDICT XVI, Discourse to the Brazilian Bishops on their ad limina Visit (7 September 2009): L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 16 September 2009, p. 5. “In the decades which followed the Second Vatican Council, some have interpreted openness to the world not as a requirement of the missionary zeal of the Heart of Christ, but rather as a passage to secularization, seeing in it several values of great Christian depth, such as equality, freedom and solidarity, and showing that they were ready to make concessions and to discover areas of cooperation. So it was that certain leading clerics took part in ethical debates in response to the expectations of public opinion, but people stopped speaking of certain fundamental truths of faith, such as sin, grace, theological life and the last things. They were unconsciously caught up in the self-secularization of many ecclesial communities; these, hoping to please those who did not come, saw the members they already had leave, deprived and disappointed. When they meet us, our contemporaries want to see what they see nowhere else, that is, the joy and hope that come from being with the Risen Lord.”
 The reference comes from an initiative promoted by the Pontifical Council for Culture, at the suggestion of Pope Benedict XVI. The “Courtyards of the Gentiles” are places to initiate a mutually enriching and culturally stimulating encounter between Christians and those who do not profess any religion but wish to approach God, at least as something unknown in their lives.
 Cf. SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 22.
 BENEDICT XVI, Discourse to Catholic Educators (17 April 2008), Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.: L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly Edition in English, 23 April 2008, pp. 7-8.
 BENEDICT XVI, Discourse at the Opening of the Convention of the Diocese of Rome(11 June 2007); L’Osservatore Romano: Weekly edition in English, 20 June 2007, p. 3.
 BENEDICT XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in veritate (29 June 2009), 51: AAS 101 (2009) 687, 688.
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